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#32781492   2020/08/11 To Up

Pathology of the outbreak of subgenotype 2.5 classical swine fever virus in northern Vietnam.

Classical swine fever (CSF) is an endemic disease in southeastern Asia and is one of the most important swine diseases in Vietnam. This study was conducted to characterize the pathology of natural cases of CSF in northern Vietnam in 2018 and their genetic prevalence. A total of 10 representative pigs were collected from four provinces (Hung Yen, Ha Noi, Quang Ninh and Thai Binh) during five outbreaks and examined pathologically. The gross and histopathological findings showed the disease was expressed as the acute or the subacute to chronic form of CSF, depending on the age of the animals. The most consistently observed lesions associated with infection by the classical swine fever virus (CSFV) included lymphoid depletions in tonsils, lymph node and spleen; histiocytic hyperplasia in spleen; cerebral haemorrhage; perivascular cuffing in the brain; renal erythrodiapedesis; urothelial vacuolation and degeneration and interstitial pneumonia. The immunohistochemical findings showed a ubiquitous CSFV antigen mainly in the monocytes/macrophages and in the epithelial and endothelial cells in various organs. CSFV neurotropism was also found in the small neurons of the cerebrum and the ganglia of the myenteric plexus. Analysis of the full-length envelope protein (E2) genome sequence showed that all strains were genetically clustered into subgenotype 2.5, sharing a nucleotide identity of 94.0%-100.00%. Based on the results of this study, the strain was categorized as a moderately virulent CSFV.
Uda Zahli Izzati, Nguyen Thi Hoa, Nguyen Thi Lan, Nguyen Van Diep, Naoyuki Fuke, Takuya Hirai, Ryoji Yamaguchi

1183 related Products with: Pathology of the outbreak of subgenotype 2.5 classical swine fever virus in northern Vietnam.

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#32781488   2020/08/11 To Up

Dismantling the Fragility Index: A demonstration of statistical reasoning.

The Fragility Index has been introduced as a complement to the P-value to summarize the statistical strength of evidence for a trial's result. The Fragility Index (FI) is defined in trials with two equal treatment group sizes, with a dichotomous or time-to-event outcome, and is calculated as the minimum number of conversions from nonevent to event in the treatment group needed to shift the P-value from Fisher's exact test over the .05 threshold. As the index lacks a well-defined probability motivation, its interpretation is challenging for consumers. We clarify what the FI may be capturing by separately considering two scenarios: (a) what the FI is capturing mathematically when the probability model is correct and (b) how well the FI captures violations of probability model assumptions. By calculating the posterior probability of a treatment effect, we show that when the probability model is correct, the FI inappropriately penalizes small trials for using fewer events than larger trials to achieve the same significance level. The analysis shows that for experiments conducted without bias, the FI promotes an incorrect intuition of probability, which has not been noted elsewhere and must be dispelled. We illustrate shortcomings of the FI's ability to quantify departures from model assumptions and contextualize the FI concept within current debate around the null hypothesis significance testing paradigm. Altogether, the FI creates more confusion than it resolves and does not promote statistical thinking. We recommend against its use. Instead, sensitivity analyses are recommended to quantify and communicate robustness of trial results.
Gail E Potter

2294 related Products with: Dismantling the Fragility Index: A demonstration of statistical reasoning.

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#32781455   2020/08/11 To Up

Experiences with Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist in Children with Acquired Hypothalamic Obesity.

Hypothalamic obesity (HO) in children after treatment for a tumor in the suprasellar region has severe implications. Previous studies have shown various effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist in acquired HO, but in adults only. We present our experience of GLP-1 receptor agonist (exenatide) treatment during a 1-year period on body mass index (BMI) in children with acquired HO.
Jiska van Schaik, Dominique G A Begijn, Laura van Iersel, Yvonne Vergeer, Eelco W Hoving, Babette Peeters, Hanneke M van Santen

2663 related Products with: Experiences with Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonist in Children with Acquired Hypothalamic Obesity.

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#32781440   2020/08/10 To Up

A Combined Sleep Hygiene and Mindfulness Intervention to Improve Sleep and Well-Being During High-Performance Youth Tennis Tournaments.

To investigate the effects of combined sleep hygiene recommendations and mindfulness on actigraphy-based sleep parameters, perceptual well-being, anxiety, and match outcomes during high-performance junior tennis tournaments.
Jonathon R Lever, Alistair P Murphy, Rob Duffield, Hugh H K Fullagar

2939 related Products with: A Combined Sleep Hygiene and Mindfulness Intervention to Improve Sleep and Well-Being During High-Performance Youth Tennis Tournaments.

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#32781437   2020/08/10 To Up

Tibial Acceleration Reliability and Minimal Detectable Difference During Overground and Treadmill Running.

Measurements of tibial acceleration during running must be reliable to ensure valid results and reduce errors. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and minimal detectable difference (MDD) of peak axial and peak resultant tibial acceleration during overground and treadmill running. The authors also compared reliability and MDDs when peak tibial accelerations were determined by averaging 5 or 10 trials. Tibial acceleration was measured during overground and treadmill running of 19 participants using a lightweight accelerometer mounted to the tibia. Peak axial and peak resultant tibial accelerations were determined for each trial. Intraclass correlation coefficients determined within-session reliability, and MDDs were also calculated. Within-session reliability was excellent for all conditions (intraclass correlation coefficients = .95-.99). The MDDs ranged from 0.6 to 1.4 g for peak axial acceleration and from 1.6 to 2.0 g for peak resultant acceleration and were lowest for peak axial tibial acceleration during overground running. Averaging 10 trials did not improve reliability compared to averaging 5 trials but did result in small reductions in MDDs. For peak axial tibial acceleration only, lower MDDs indicate that overground running may be the better option for detecting small differences.
Kevin G Aubol, Jillian L Hawkins, Clare E Milner

1417 related Products with: Tibial Acceleration Reliability and Minimal Detectable Difference During Overground and Treadmill Running.

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#32781392   2020/08/08 To Up

SOX10 is as specific as S100 protein in detecting metastases of melanoma in lymph nodes and is recommended for sentinel lymph node assessment.

Sentinel lymph node (SLN) biopsy remains crucial for melanoma staging. The European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer Melanoma Group recommends performing immunohistochemical stainings for reproducible identification of melanoma metastases. S100 protein (pS100) is a commonly used melanocytic antigen because of its high sensitivity in spite of relatively low specificity. SRY-related HMG-box 10 protein (SOX10) is a transcription factor characterising neural crest-derived cells. It is uniformly expressed mostly in the nuclei of melanocytes, neural, and myoepithelial cells. Pathologists sometimes prefer SOX10 as a melanoma marker, but it has not yet been investigated on a large-scale to confirm that it is reliable and recommendable for routine SLN evaluation.
Anna Szumera-Ciećkiewicz, Francesca Bosisio, Paweł Teterycz, Asier Antoranz, Francesco Delogu, Senada Koljenović, Bart A van de Wiel, Willeke Blokx, Léon C van Kempen, Piotr Rutkowski, Alexander Christopher van Akkooi, Martin Cook, Daniela Massi,

1178 related Products with: SOX10 is as specific as S100 protein in detecting metastases of melanoma in lymph nodes and is recommended for sentinel lymph node assessment.

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#32781386   2020/08/01 To Up

A microgravity responsive synthetic genetic device in Escherichia coli.

Bioengineering solutions to human space travel must consider microgravity as an important component. Thus, one of the fundamental challenges of space bioengineering is to create cellular microgravity responsive device, which integrate microgravity as a signal within biochemical and cellular processes. Here, we designed, fabricated and characterized the first biochemical and cellular microgravity responsive device using an engineered genetic circuit in E.coli, which responded to microgravity by changing the expression of a target enhanced green fluorescent gene (EGFP). Our device design was based on the deregulation of HfQ protein in E.coli in microgravity, which was translated through HfQ mediated silencing of EGFP by anti-EGFP synthetic small regulatory RNAs. This resulted a reduced silencing (~28 times) of the EGFP in microgravity. We demonstrated that the basic design of the device is universal in nature for E.coli, by creating multiple successful devices, where target genes (EGFP, TdTomato, and FtsZ) and the promoters (inducible and constitutive) were altered. Further, we applied this device to control the cell division process by microgravity. Here we targeted the cell division regulator FtsZ, which resulted an elongated cell shape in normal gravity and this deformed cell shape got rescued to normal one by applying microgravity. The work showed for the first time, a way to integrate microgravity as a physical signal within biochemical processes of a living cell in a human designed way and thus, may have significance in space bioengineering and synthetic biology.
Sayak Mukhopadhyay, Sangram Bagh

1022 related Products with: A microgravity responsive synthetic genetic device in Escherichia coli.

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#32781375   2020/07/24 To Up

3D-exoscopic visualization using the VITOM-3D in cranial and spinal neurosurgery. What are the limitations?

3D exoscopic visualization in neurosurgical procedures is of interest for several reasons. The VITOM-3D exoscopic system is cheaper compared to the operating microscope (OM) and offers each person involved in the procedure the same image of the operative field. Little is known of limitations of this visualization technique.
Benedikt W Burkhardt, Akos Csokonay, Joachim M Oertel

2013 related Products with: 3D-exoscopic visualization using the VITOM-3D in cranial and spinal neurosurgery. What are the limitations?

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#32781371   2020/08/08 To Up

A pragmatic randomised controlled trial of the fostering changes programme.

Many looked after young people in Wales are cared for by foster or kinship carers, usually as a consequence of maltreatment or developmentally traumatising experiences within a family context. Confidence in Care is a pragmatic unblinded individually randomised controlled parallel group trial evaluating a training programme to improve foster carer self-efficacy, when compared to usual care.
Gwenllian Moody, Elinor Coulman, Lucy Brookes-Howell, Rebecca Cannings-John, Susan Channon, Mandy Lau, Alyson Rees, Jeremy Segrott, Jonathan Scourfield, Michael Robling

1347 related Products with: A pragmatic randomised controlled trial of the fostering changes programme.

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#32781357   2020/08/08 To Up

MicroRNAs in autoimmune liver diseases: from diagnosis to potential therapeutic targets.

Autoimmune liver diseases (AILDs) are a group of liver disorders composed of autoimmune hepatitis (AIH), primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), and primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) characterized by chronic hepatic and biliary inflammation. Although several genetic factors, such as HLA alleles, TNFA, and CTLA-4, have been reported in the pathogenesis of AILDs, many details remain unknown. In recent years, microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as crucial components in the diagnosis and therapeutic applications of various autoimmune diseases, including systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), glomerulonephritis, and AILDs. MiRNAs comprise a class of small, noncoding molecules of 19--25 nucleotides that modulate multiple genes by suppressing or degrading target mRNAs. Altered miRNA profiles have been identified in serum, immune cells, and live tissues from AILD patients. Elevated serum miR-21 and miR-122 levels in AIH patients as well as decreased miR-200c levels in PSC patients indicate their diagnostic utility. Highly expressed miR-122 and miR-378f as well as downregulated miR-4311 and miR-4714-3p in serum samples from refractory PBC patients suggest their potential to evaluate treatment efficacy. Moreover, miRNAs have been reported to participate in AILD development. Increased miR-506 levels may impair bile secretion in PBC by inhibiting Cl-/HCO3-anion exchanger 2 (AE2) and type III inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor-3 (InsP3R3). Additionally, different miRNA mimics or antagonists, such as atagomiR-155 and miR-223 mimics, have been widely applied in experimental AILD murine models with great efficacy. Here, we provide an overview of miRNAs in AILDs, aiming to summarize their potential roles in diagnosis and therapeutic interventions, and we discuss the challenges and future applications of miRNAs in clinical practice.
Chen Huang, Xian Xing, Xinyu Xiang, Xiaoli Fan, Ruoting Men, Tinghong Ye, Li Yang

2861 related Products with: MicroRNAs in autoimmune liver diseases: from diagnosis to potential therapeutic targets.

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