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#34524969   2021/09/01 To Up

Can waist circumference be a predictor of bone mineral density independently of BMI in middle-aged adults?

Obesity and osteoporosis are major public health issues globally. The prevalence of these two diseases prompts the need to better understand the relationship between them. Previous studies, however, have yielded controversial findings on this issue. Therefore, our aim in this study was to evaluate the independent association between waist circumference (WC), as a marker of obesity, and the bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine among middle-aged adults using data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES).
Ying Hua, Jinqiong Fang, Xiaocong Yao, Zhongxin Zhu

2335 related Products with: Can waist circumference be a predictor of bone mineral density independently of BMI in middle-aged adults?

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#34524943   2021/09/15 To Up

Increased alveolar epithelial TRAF6 via autophagy-dependent TRIM37 degradation mediates particulate matter-induced lung metastasis.

Epidemiological and clinical studies have shown that exposure to particulate matter (PM) is associated with an increased incidence of lung cancer and metastasis. However, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated the central role of PM-induced neutrophil recruitment in promoting lung cancer metastasis. We found that reactive oxygen species (ROS)-mediated alveolar epithelial macroautophagy/autophagy was essential for initiating neutrophil chemotaxis and pre-metastatic niche formation in the lungs in response to PM exposure. During PM-induced autophagy, the E3 ubiquitin ligase TRIM37 was degraded and protected TRAF6 from proteasomal degradation in lung epithelial cells, which promoted the NFKB-dependent production of chemokines to recruit neutrophils. Importantly, ROS blockade, autophagy inhibition or TRAF6 knockdown abolished PM-induced neutrophil recruitment and lung metastasis enhancement. Our study indicates that host lung epithelial cells and neutrophils coordinate to promote cancer metastasis to the lungs in response to PM exposure and provides ideal therapeutic targets for metastatic progression.: ACTA2/α-SMA: actin alpha 2, smooth muscle, aorta; ATII: alveolar type II; Cho- siRNA: 5'-cholesterol- siRNA; EMT: epithelial-mesenchymal transition; HBE: human bronchial epithelial; HCQ: hydroxychloroquine; MAPK: mitogen-activated protein kinase; NAC: N-acetyl-L-cysteine; NFKB: nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B cells; NS: normal saline; PM: particulate matter; ROS: reactive oxygen species; TRAF6: TNF receptor-associated factor 6; TRIM37: tripartite motif-containing 37.
Jiajun Liu, Shumin Li, Xuefeng Fei, Xi Nan, Yingying Shen, Huiqing Xiu, Stephania A Cormier, Chaojie Lu, Chuqi Guo, Shibo Wang, Zhijian Cai, Pingli Wang

2870 related Products with: Increased alveolar epithelial TRAF6 via autophagy-dependent TRIM37 degradation mediates particulate matter-induced lung metastasis.

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#34524867   2021/09/15 To Up

First Report of Onion ( L.) Bulb Rot Caused by Pantoea agglomerans in China.

Onion (Allium cepa L.) is one of the most cultivated vegetables throughout the world. With an average annual production quantity of 18 million kg in recent 21 years, China is the world's biggest onion producer (Hanci F., 2018). Among them, onion is mainly cultivated in the provinces of Gansu, Shandong, Yunnan, Jiangsu, Zhejiang and Henan. A survey in Gansu province in last several years showed that the incidence of onion bulb rot was 30%-80%. In April 2020, bulbs displayed water-soaked, and then rot symptoms observed during storage in Lanzhou City, Gansu Province, China. The initial symptoms of bulb rot disease were yellowish brown, and produced an abundant exudate in the inner bulb scales when cut. Gradually, symptomatic bulbs became soft, watery and decayed. In severe infections, the onions showed total rot of the bulb. Therefore, we sampled some diseased onions and isolated pathogenic bacteria from the junction of lesion along with healthy parts on Luria-Bertani (LB) medium. Three representative single colonies were obtained on LB medium, and the culture characteristics were raised elevation, mucoid texture, round, and smooth with entire margin, the brown at the beginning and turned yellow later, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observations showed that these isolates were short rod-shaped (Fig. 1A). The physiological and biochemical determination revealed that the isolates were positive for yellow pigment, v-p test, growth at 37 ℃, nitrate reduced, catalase, glucose, sucrose, D (-)-salicin, starch hydrolysis, motility, pellicle. On the contrary, they were negative for indole production, methyl red, lactose, gelatin liquefaction, glycerol, gram staining (Gavini et al., 1989; Nabrdalik et al., 2018). Based on these morphological, physiological and biochemical characteristics, three isolates were initially identified as Pantoea agglomerans (Guo et al., 2020). A representative isolate L1 was selected to extract DNA, and the conserved sequences of the pathogen gene were sequenced according to 23S ribosomal RNA (23S rRNA), DNA gyrase subunit B (gyrB), elongation factor G (fusA) (She et al., 2021) housekeeping gene. The sequence alignment of the 23S rRNA gene (P. agglomerans, MZ314289, 930bp) showed that the homology between the strain L1 and P. agglomerans (CP016889) with similarity of 99.54%, and based on the sequence alignment of gyrB (P. agglomerans, MZ337547, 1189bp) and fusA (P. agglomerans, MZ350961, 1037bp) genes, the similarity with P. agglomerans (FJ617386 and MG845872) was 100%. A phylogenetic analysis based on the 23S, gyrB, fusA housekeeping gene sequences was performed by using the neighbor-joining methods in MEGA 7.0 under the p-distance (Kumar et al, 2016), which included P. agglomerans strains AR1a, TH81, L15, ASB05, P. eucalypti strain LMG 24197, P. dispersa strains BJQ0007 and DSM 32899, P. ananatis strains LMG 20103 and AJ13355, P. vagans strains C9-1, LMG24199 and PV989. The phylogenetic distribution generated five primary phylogroups, and strain L1 formed a clade with the other four P. agglomerans strains (Fig. 2). Thus, the strain L1 was identified as P. agglomerans. To satisfy Koch's postulates, ten onions were divided into two groups, five in each group, and needle punctured wound on the surface of each onion. In the experimental group, 400 μL bacterial suspensions were injected with sterile syringe, and the other five onions were injected with the same amount of sterile distilled water as the negative conrol. Inoculated onions were incubated in the greenhouse incubator (28 ℃, humidity > 80%). After 4 days of incubation, all onions inoculated with strain L1 appeared water-soaked, rot symptoms, and no symptoms were observed in the negative control (Fig. 1B). Subsequently, pathogens were re-isolated from inoculated bulbs and identified as P. agglomerans according to molecular identification described above. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report that the bulb rot disease of stored onion caused by P. agglomerans in China.
Jinfeng Zhang, Jianglai Wang, Jinxiu Ma, Lu Liu, Tong Shen, Yongqiang Tian

1456 related Products with: First Report of Onion ( L.) Bulb Rot Caused by Pantoea agglomerans in China.

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#34524866   2021/09/15 To Up

First Report of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris Causing Marginal Leaf Necrosis of Arugula (Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa) in Serbia.

Arugula (Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa (Miller) Thell., syn. Brassica eruca L.), is an annual cruciferous crop that is increasingly grown for fresh consumption in Serbia. In November 2018, a few detached leaves of cultivated arugula originating from a local producer, showing necrotic lesions, were observed in a fresh vegetable market in Belgrade, Serbia. Information about the disease incidence and severity was not available. Intensity of the observed symptoms was low, but it could be a consequence of the produce quality selection for the market. The leaves developed irregular chlorotic lesions starting from the leaf edge, and tissue within some of them turned dark brown and necrotic (Fig. 1a). From the lesions on different leaves, smooth, bright yellow pigmented, round and opalescent bacterial colonies were isolated on nutrient agar (NA) medium after 72 h of incubation at 26°C. Six bacterial isolates, obtained from three leaf subsamples which induced hypersensitive reaction in tobacco leaves (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. Samsun), were selected for further studies. On yeast - dextrose - CaCO3 medium, the strains formed characteristic creamy yellow, mucoid, opaque and convex colonies. All isolates were Gram-negative, strictly aerobic, non-fluorescent and catalase positive, did not produce oxidase nor arginine dehydrolase, and did not show pectynolitic activity on potato tuber slices. They hydrolyzed starch, gelatine and esculin, used glucose and sucrose, but not arabinose as a carbon source, and did not reduce nitrates. They grew at 36°C, and tolerated 5% NaCl and 0.02% triphenyl-tetrazolium chloride (Lelliott and Stead, 1987). These growth characteristics were similar as for the reference Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) strain KFB 105, used in all tests as a positive control (Obradović et al., 2000). The isolates were further characterized by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using primers DLH120/DLH125, specific for the hrpF gene region of X. campestris according to Berg et al. (2005). Specific DNA fragment of 619 bp was amplified for all tested isolates. Amplification and partial sequencing of the gyrB gene of four isolates was performed using set of primers described by Parkinson et al. (2007). All obtained partial gyrB sequences were identical to each other. According to BLAST analysis (GenBank Acc. Nos. MW508894 - MW508897) they shared 100% of sequence identity with different Xcc strains and 99.5 % with the X.c. pv. raphani pathotype strain, deposited in the NCBI GenBank database. Pathogenicity of the isolates was tested by spraying leaves of 3-week old E. sativa seedlings grown in a commercial potting mix in a greenhouse, with a 24 h-old bacterial culture suspended in sterile distilled water (107 CFU/ml). Xcc strain KFB 105 was used as positive and sterile distilled water as negative control. Inoculated plants were incubated under plastic bags for 48 h and further maintained in a greenhouse at approx. 28°C. On inoculated plants, chlorotic lesions, spreading from the leaf margins, further coalescing into irregular, V-shaped tissue necrosis associated with blackening of veins, developed up to two weeks after inoculation (Fig. 1b, c). The colonies reisolated from symptomatic leaves were identified using PCR, as described above. Based on studied characteristics, all six isolates associated with arugula leaf lesions in Serbia belong to a clonal population. They were identified as X. campestris pv. campestris, the causal agent of black rot, a major disease affecting crucifers, including arugula worldwide (Romero et al., 2008; Rosenthal, et al., 2018). So far, it has been described on Brassica oleracea and B. napus in Serbia (Obradović et al., 2001; Popović et al., 2019). This is the first report of Xcc infecting arugula in this country. The severity of the symptoms developed on artificially inoculated plants indicated significant potential of the pathogen to affect arugula crop in conditions favoring infection. Being a minor crop, accurate information about severity of arugula diseases in Serbia is not available. Lack of crop rotation and close proximity of other Xcc host species on a farm could contribute to further spreading of this problem. Follow up of this arugula disease should reveal the distribution, population structure and genetic diversity of Xcc strains affecting this crop in Serbia.
Andjelka Prokić, Tamara Marković, Jelena Menković, Milan Ivanovic, Aleksa Obradoviċ

1164 related Products with: First Report of Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris Causing Marginal Leaf Necrosis of Arugula (Eruca vesicaria subsp. sativa) in Serbia.

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#34524865   2021/09/15 To Up

Leaf spot caused by Colletotrichum fructicola on star anise (Illicium verum) in China.

Star anise (Illicium verum) has been cultivated for centuries in southern China, and its fruit is an important seasoning spice, and can be used as a medicine (Wang et al. 2011). It is grown mainly in Guangxi, Guangdong, Guizhou, and Yunnan provinces, in China. Anthracnose is one of the important diseases of star anise, which seriously affects the yield and quality by infecting twigs, pedicels, fruit stalks and fruits (Liao et al. 2017). When leaf spots first appear, they are round, water-stained, small, dark brown spots, which expands into round separated spots, then the spots become yellowish brown with small black acervuli arranged in a circular pattern. On 22 August 2019, four leaf spot samples of star anise were collected, with two each from Shanglin County and Jinxiu County in Guangxi Province. The plantations in this area of around 8 ha had more than 80% leaf spot incidence. Small pieces of tissues (5 mm × 5 mm) were taken from the zone between symptomatic and healthy plant tissues, surface-disinfected in 75% ethanol for 10 s and 1% NaClO (sodium hypochlorite) for 1 min, and washed three times in sterilized distilled water. The sterilized leaf tissues were placed on potato dextrose agar (PDA) and incubated at 28°C in darkness for a week. Hyphae growing from tissue pieces were subcultured onto fresh PDA. Three of the four leaves yielded cultures resembling Colletotrichum spp. Four fungal isolates were obtained by a single-spore isolation method. The isolates JX1-2 and JX1-5 were collected from Jinxiu County while SL1-2 and SL2-1 were collected from Shanglin County. Genomic DNA was extracted from these four fungal isolates, followed by PCR amplification and sequencing of the rDNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS), actin (ACT), Apn2-Mat1-2 intergenic spacer, partial mating type (Mat1-2) (ApMat), calmodulin (CAL), chitin synthase (CHS-1), and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) (Weir et al. 2012). The sequences have been deposited in GenBank (ITS: MW301215 to MW301218; ACT: MW348965 to MW348968; ApMat: MW348973 to MW348976; CAL: MW348957 to MW348960; CHS-1: MW348969 to MW348972; GAPDH: MW348961 to MW348964). For phylogenetic analysis, MEGAX (Kumar et al. 2018) was used to produce a Maximum Likelihood (ML) tree with 1000 bootstrap replicates, based on a concatenation of the sequenced genomic regions for each of the four isolates from this study as well as sequences of other Colletotrichum species obtained from GenBank. The results revealed that isolates JX1-2, JX1-5, and SL1-2 were C. horii, and SL2-1 was C. fructicola (Weir et al.2012). The resulting colonies were initially white with abundant aerial hyphae, and white-gray after three days at 28°C on PDA. Isolate SL2-1 eventually turned greenish-grey after 14 days, while the center of C. horii isolates turned iron-gray with white-gray marginal. Both species of Colletotrichum had hyaline conidia that were terete, smooth, apex obtuse, base truncate, and there were no significant differences (P>0.05) in conidial size between C. horii (10.5 to 33.6 × 3.6 to 9.3 μm) (n=300) and C. fructicola (13.1 to 16.2 × 4.7 to 7.1 μm) (n=100). Pathogenicity tests were conducted in the greenhouse on 1-year-old star anise seedlings, and performed with a conidial suspension (10 µL of 106 conidia/mL) containing 0.1% Tween 20 placed onto lightly wounded sites on healthy leaves. Light cross-shaped wounds were made with sterilized toothpicks, gently scratching the surface without piercing the leaf. Each isolate was inoculated onto three seedlings, with at least eight leaves per seedling inoculated in two spots after light wounding. Control seedlings were inoculated with water containing 0.1% Tween 20. All inoculated seedlings were maintained in the greenhouse (12 h/12 h light/dark, 25±2°C), and covered with plastic bags to maintain high humidity throughout. The wounded sites inoculated with C. horii darkened to greenish-brown after 24 h, and C. fructicola gave similar symptoms after 36 h. Then the wounds turned to light brown round spots, and after 5 days, the spots expanded to water-stained spots with dots of acervuli arranged in a circular pattern. No symptoms were observed for the non-inoculated control. Each fungal isolate was consistently re-isolated from inoculated leaves, thus fulfilling Koch's postulates. There were significant differences (P<0.05) in aggressiveness between the two species, with C. horii showing larger diameter lesions (averaging 10.2 mm) than C. fructicola (averaging 8.4 mm). Anthracnose of star anise caused by C. horii (Liao et al. 2017) and C. coccdes (Wu et al. 2003) has been previously reported in China; however, to our knowledge, this is the first report of C. fructicola infecting star anise in China. This study may provide reference for further epidemiological study and prevention of anthracnose on star anise.
Jiang Zhao, Zhihe Yu, Qili Li, Lihua Tang, Tangxun Guo, Suiping Huang, Jianyou Mo, Tom Hsiang

2764 related Products with: Leaf spot caused by Colletotrichum fructicola on star anise (Illicium verum) in China.

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#34523628   2021/09/15 To Up

Theoretical study of the Cl(P) + SiH reaction: global potential energy surface and product pair-correlated distributions. Comparison with experiment.

For the theoretical study of the title reaction, an analytical full-dimensional potential energy surface named PES-2021 was developed for the first time, by fitting high-level explicitly-correlated data. This reaction presented high exothermicity, (298 K) = -11.6 kcal mol, reproducing the experimental evidence; it is a barrierless reaction and no intermediate complexes were found. PES-2021 is a continuous and smooth potential energy surface, it includes intuitive concepts in its development and fitting, such as stretching and bending nuclear motions, and it presents analytical first energy derivatives. Based on PES-2021, kinetics and dynamics studies were carried out using quasi-classical trajectory calculations. In the kinetics study, over the temperature range 300-450 K, we observed that rate constants were practically independent of temperature, with an almost zero activation energy, as compared to 0.0 and -0.48 kcal mol experimentally reported. In this kinetics study the role of the spin-orbit effect on reactivity was analysed. In the dynamics study, different product pair-correlated dynamics properties were compared with the only experimental evidence: product energy partition, product vibrational distribution, product angular distribution and product speed distribution. We observed two mechanisms of reaction, a stripping mechanism associated with large impact parameters and forward scattering, and an indirect mechanism associated with sideways-backward scattering related with "nearly-trapped" trajectories due to the product rotation. In general, theoretical results reasonably simulate the experimental measurements when they consider some rotational and vibrational constraints as well as binning techniques to mimic a quantum-mechanical behaviour. Although the agreement is not quantitative, the present results shed light on the mechanism of this difficult polyatomic reactive system.
J Espinosa-Garcia, J C Corchado

2940 related Products with: Theoretical study of the Cl(P) + SiH reaction: global potential energy surface and product pair-correlated distributions. Comparison with experiment.

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#34523382   2021/09/15 To Up

Comparison of single-shot nebuliser protocol between dexmedetomidine and ketamine in children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging.

Sedation for magnetic resonance imaging mandates deep sedation to ensure patient immobility. The nebulised route of drug delivery carries the advantage of good bioavailability and safety profile. We aimed to compare the efficacy and safety of nebulised dexmedetomidine and ketamine for sedation in children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging.
K Geetha, Shibani Padhy, K Karishma

2445 related Products with: Comparison of single-shot nebuliser protocol between dexmedetomidine and ketamine in children undergoing magnetic resonance imaging.

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#34523259   // To Up

miR-145 transgenic mice develop cardiopulmonary complications leading to postnatal death.

Both downregulation and elevation of microRNA miR-145 has been linked to an array of cardiopulmonary phenotypes, and a host of studies suggest that it is an important contributor in governing the differentiation of cardiac and vascular smooth muscle cell types.
Shelby Thomas, Sathiyanarayanan Manivannan, Dwitiya Sawant, Karthik M Kodigepalli, Vidu Garg, Simon J Conway, Brenda Lilly

2680 related Products with: miR-145 transgenic mice develop cardiopulmonary complications leading to postnatal death.

One 96-Well Strip Micropl 25 G600 Tests / Kit100ug/vial100 1 module0.2 mg1 module96 wells (1 kit)

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#34523218   2021/09/14 To Up

Impaired non-canonical transforming growth factor-β signalling prevents profibrotic phenotypes in cultured peptidylarginine deiminase 4-deficient murine cardiac fibroblasts.

Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) becomes rapidly activated in the infarcted heart. Hence, TGF-β-mediated persistent activation of cardiac fibroblasts (CFs) and exaggerated fibrotic responses may result in adverse cardiac remodelling and heart failure. Additionally, peptidylarginine deiminase 4 (PAD4) was described to be implicated in organ fibrosis. Here, we investigated the impact of PAD4 on CF function and myofibroblast transdifferentiation in vitro. The expression of fibrosis-related genes was largely similar in cultured WT and PAD4 CFs of passage 3, although collagen III was reduced in PAD4 CFs. Exposure to TGF-β inhibited proliferation and increased contractile activity and migration of WT CFs, but not of PAD4 CFs. However, under baseline conditions, PAD4 CFs showed comparable functional characteristics as TGF-β-stimulated WT CFs. Although the SMAD-dependent TGF-β pathway was not disturbed in PAD4 CFs, TGF-β failed to activate protein kinase B (Akt) and signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in these cells. Similar results were obtained in WT CFs treated with the PAD4 inhibitor Cl-amidine. Abrogated Akt activation was associated with diminished levels of phosphorylated, inactive glycogen synthase kinase-3β (GSK-3β). Consequently, PAD4 CFs did not upregulate collagen I and α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) expression after TGF-β treatment. Thus, PAD4 is substantially involved in the regulation of non-canonical TGF-β signalling and may represent a therapeutic target for the treatment of adverse cardiac remodelling.
Hanane Akboua, Kaveh Eghbalzadeh, Ugur Keser, Thorsten Wahlers, Adnana Paunel-Görgülü

2463 related Products with: Impaired non-canonical transforming growth factor-β signalling prevents profibrotic phenotypes in cultured peptidylarginine deiminase 4-deficient murine cardiac fibroblasts.

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