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#32061192 // Save this To Up
Habitual cigarette smoking attenuates shear-mediated dilation in the brachial artery but not in the carotid artery in young adults.In the present study, we hypothesized that habitual cigarette smoking attenuates endothelial function in the cerebral circulation as well as that of the peripheral circulation in young adults. To test this hypothesis, we measured cerebrovascular and peripheral flow-mediated dilation (FMD) in young smokers and nonsmokers in the present study. Ten healthy nonsmokers and 10 smokers participated in the study. We measured blood velocity and diameter in the brachial artery and internal carotid artery (ICA) using Doppler ultrasound. We identified shear-mediated dilation in the brachial artery and ICA by the percentage change in peak diameter during hyperemia stimulation (reactive hyperemia and hypercapnia). We measured the baseline diameter and the shear rate area under the curve from the onset of hyperemia to peak dilation in the brachial artery and ICA, finding the measurements of the smokers and those of the nonsmokers did not differ (p > .05). In contrast to brachial FMD (5.07 ± 1.79% vs. 7.92 ± 3.01%; smokers vs. nonsmokers, p = .019), FMD in the ICA was not attenuated in the smokers compared with that of the nonsmokers (5.46 ± 2.32% vs. 4.57 ± 2.70%; p = .442). These findings indicate that in young healthy smokers, cerebral endothelial function was preserved, and the response of cerebral endothelial function to smoking was different from that of peripheral vasculature.
1601 related Products with: Habitual cigarette smoking attenuates shear-mediated dilation in the brachial artery but not in the carotid artery in young adults.
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Bioinspired oxidation in the CYP of isomers orientin and isoorientin using Salen complexes.Orientin and isoorientin are C-glycosidic flavonoids, considered as markers of some plant species as Passiflora edulis var. flavicarpa Degener and reported in the literature to have pharmacological properties. In order to evaluate and characterize the in vitro metabolism of flavonoids, phase I biotransformation reactions were simulated using Salen complexes.
1694 related Products with: Bioinspired oxidation in the CYP of isomers orientin and isoorientin using Salen complexes.FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Goat Anti-Human, Mouse CY FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Goat Anti- CYP3A4, (inter Goat Anti-Human CYP17A1, FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Goat Anti-Human ZASP CYPH Goat Anti-Human Aromatase MultiGene Gradient therm Multiple organ tumor tiss
#32061184 // Save this To Up
Intermittent dosing of the transforming growth factor beta receptor 1 inhibitor, BMS-986260, mitigates class-based cardiovascular toxicity in dogs but not rats.Small-molecule inhibitors of transforming growth factor beta receptor 1 (TGFβRI) have a history of significant class-based toxicities (eg, cardiac valvulopathy) in preclinical species that have limited their development as new medicines. Nevertheless, some TGFβRI inhibitors have entered into clinical trials using intermittent-dosing schedules and exposure limits in an attempt to avoid these toxicities. This report describes the toxicity profile of the small-molecule TGFβRI inhibitor, BMS-986260, in rats and dogs. Daily oral dosing for 10 days resulted in valvulopathy and/or aortic pathology at systemic exposures that would have been targeted clinically, preventing further development with this dosing schedule. These toxicities were not observed in either species in 1-month studies using the same doses on an intermittent-dosing schedule of 3 days on and 4 days off (QDx3 once weekly). Subsequently, 3-month studies were conducted (QDx3 once weekly), and while there were no cardiovascular findings in dogs, valvulopathy and mortality occurred early in rats. The only difference compared to the 1-month study was that the rats in the 3-month study were 2 weeks younger at the start of dosing. Therefore, a follow-up 1-month study was conducted to evaluate whether the age of rats influences sensitivity to target-mediated toxicity. Using the same dosing schedule and similar doses as in the 3-month study, there was no difference in the toxicity of BMS-986260 in young (8 weeks) or adult (8 months) rats. In summary, an intermittent-dosing schedule mitigated target-based cardiovascular toxicity in dogs but did not prevent valvulopathy in rats, and thus the development of BMS-986260 was terminated.
1980 related Products with: Intermittent dosing of the transforming growth factor beta receptor 1 inhibitor, BMS-986260, mitigates class-based cardiovascular toxicity in dogs but not rats.
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The Wickerhamiella/Starmerella clade - a treasure trove for the study of the evolution of yeast metabolism.The Wickerhamiella and Starmerella genera form a clade (W/S clade) that branches close to Yarrowia lipolytica in the Saccharomycotina species tree. It comprises approximately 90 recognized species and 50 putative new species not formally described yet. The large majority of the members of the W/S clade are ecologically associated with flowers and floricolous insects. Many species exhibit unusual metabolic traits, like fructophily and the production of sophorolipids, which are glycolipids that can be used as environmentally friendly biosurfactants. Genomic data have not only firmly established the W/S clade but have also revealed a tumultuous evolution of metabolism marked by losses and gains of important metabolic pathways, among which alcoholic fermentation. Possibly the most surprising finding brought to light by comparative genomics concerned the large number of genes acquired by some species of the W/S clade from bacteria through horizontal gene transfer, many of which were shown to be functional in their new setting. This was facilitated by the genetic tractability of one species in the clade, Starmerella bombicola, which is used for the industrial production of sophorolipids. We suggest that high-density coverage of genome sequencing in this clade, combined with the possibility to conduct molecular genetics experiments in at least one species has the potential to set the stage for yet more exciting discoveries concerning the evolution of yeast metabolism.
2503 related Products with: The Wickerhamiella/Starmerella clade - a treasure trove for the study of the evolution of yeast metabolism.Rabbit Anti-Theophylline FDA Standard Frozen Tissu TCP-1 theta antibody Sour Rabbit anti PKC theta (pS FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Normal rat multiple organ Rabbit anti PKC theta (Ab Normal mouse multiple org Mouse Anti-Bacteroides th FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Multiple organ tumor tiss Rat Anti-CCT theta Antibo
#32061171 // Save this To Up
Inhibition of MiR-122 Decreases Cerebral Ischemia-reperfusion Injury by Upregulating DJ-1-Phosphatase and Tensin Homologue Deleted on Chromosome 10 (PTEN)/Phosphonosinol-3 Kinase (PI3K)/AKT.BACKGROUND Ischemia-reperfusion injury is caused by a blood reperfusion injury in ischemic brain tissue, and usually occurs in the treatment stage of ischemic disease, which can aggravate brain tissue injury. MiR-122 is closely related to ischemia-reperfusion injury in the myocardium, kidney, and liver; however, the role in cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury has not been established. MATERIAL AND METHODS In this study, cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury was established in a rat model, and the control group was a sham-operated group. After ischemia-reperfusion injury for 6, 12, and 24 hours, brain tissue specimens were collected and the expression of miR-122 and DJ-1 were determined using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Flow cytometry was used to determine the reactive oxygen species (ROS) content. The modified Neurological Severity Score (mNSS) scale was used to evaluate the sensory and motor function defects of the rats. The malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and enzyme activity were determined. The rats in the cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury model were divided into 2 groups (antagomir-NC group and antagomir miR-122 group). Brain neuron RN-c cells were divided into the following 4 groups: antagomir-NC, antagomir miR-122, pIRES2-blank, and pIRES2-DJ-1. Seventy-two hours after transfection, ischemia-reperfusion treatment was carried out and conventional cultured RN-c cells were used as the control group. Flow cytometry was used to detect apoptosis and western blot was used to detect the expression of DJ-1, PTEN, AKT, and p-AKT. RESULTS The expression of miR-122 increased significantly in the process of ischemia-reperfusion damage after cerebral infarction, while the expression of DJ-1 decreased significantly. Downregulation of miR-122 significantly increased the expression of DJ-1, enhanced the activity of the PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway, reduced cell apoptosis, and alleviated cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. CONCLUSIONS Inhibition of miR-122 can decrease cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury by upregulating DJ-1-PTEN/PI3K/AKT pathway.
2790 related Products with: Inhibition of MiR-122 Decreases Cerebral Ischemia-reperfusion Injury by Upregulating DJ-1-Phosphatase and Tensin Homologue Deleted on Chromosome 10 (PTEN)/Phosphonosinol-3 Kinase (PI3K)/AKT.Rabbit Anti-Human Androge Mouse Anti-M2-PK (pyruvat Anti-Acid Phosphatase Ant Monoclonal Anti-Aurora-A Rabbit Anti-ART4 CD297 Po Anti-ALKALINE PHOSPHATASE Anti-alkaline phosphatase alkaline phosphatase (liv Human IL-6, Unlabeled; So Rabbit Anti-GAPDH(3E12)-L anti-Alkaline Phosphatase Rabbit Anti-SLC25A6 Polyc
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α-Lipoic acid protects against microcystin-LR induced hepatotoxicity through regeneration of glutathione via activation of Nrf2.Microcystins (MCs), as the most dominant bloom-forming strains in eutrophic surface water, can induce hepatotoxicity by oxidative stress. Alpha-lipoic acid (α-LA) is a super antioxidant that can induce the synthesis of antioxidants, such as glutathione (GSH), by nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). However, the potential molecular mechanism of α-LA regeneration of GSH remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate whether α-LA could reduce the toxicity of MCs induced in human hepatoma (HepG2), Bel7420 cells, and BALB/c mice by activating Nrf2 to regenerate GSH. Results showed that exposure to 10 μM microcystin-leucine arginine (MC-LR) reduced viability of HepG2 and Bel7402 cells and promoted the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) compared with untreated cells. Moreover, the protection of α-LA included reducing the level of ROS, increasing superoxide dismutase activity, and decreasing malondialdehyde. Levels of reduced glutathione (rGSH) and rGSH/oxidized glutathione were significantly increased in cells cotreated with α-LA and MC-LR compared to those treated with MC-LR alone, indicating an ability of α-LA to attenuate oxidative stress and MC-LR-induced cytotoxicity by increasing the amount of rGSH. α-LA can mediate GSH regeneration through the Nrf2 pathway under the action of glutathione reductase in MC-LR cell lines. Furthermore, the data also showed that α-LA-induced cytoprotection against MC-LR is associated with Nrf2 mediate pathway in vivo. These findings demonstrated the potential of α-LA to resist MC-LR-induced oxidative damage of liver.
2171 related Products with: α-Lipoic acid protects against microcystin-LR induced hepatotoxicity through regeneration of glutathione via activation of Nrf2.Ofloxacin CAS Number [824 DL alpha Lipoic acid (DL Anti-AICDA(Activation-ind Lipoic acid synthetase an DL alpha Lipoic acid (DL Anti AICDA(Activation ind (+)-cis,trans-Abscisic Ac 2-Anthraceneacetic Acid 2 Phenethyl 1 thio beta D g 4 Biphenylcarboxylic acid 3 Aminophenylboronic acid N-Acetyl-2-O-(5-bromo-1H-
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Global Diversification Dynamics Since the Jurassic: Low Dispersal and Habitat-Dependent Evolution Explain Hotspots of Diversity and Shell Disparity in River Snails (Viviparidae).The Viviparidae, commonly known as River Snails, is a dominant group of freshwater snails with a nearly worldwide distribution that reaches its highest taxonomic and morphological diversity in Southeast Asia. The rich fossil record is indicative of a probable Middle Jurassic origin on the Laurasian supercontinent where the group started to diversify during the Cretaceous. However, it remains uncertain when and how the biodiversity hotspot in Southeast Asia was formed. Here, we used a comprehensive genetic dataset containing both mitochondrial and nuclear markers and comprising species representing 24 out of 28 genera from throughout the range of the family. To reconstruct the spatiotemporal evolution of viviparids on a global scale, we reconstructed a fossil-calibrated phylogeny. We further assessed the roles of cladogenetic and anagenetic events in range evolution. Finally, we reconstructed the evolution of shell features by estimating ancestral character states to assess whether the appearance of sculptured shell morphologies was driven by major habitat shifts. The molecular phylogeny supports the monophyly of the three subfamilies, the Bellamyinae, Lioplacinae, and Viviparinae, but challenges the currently accepted genus-level classification in several cases. The almost global distribution of River Snails has been influenced both by comparatively ancient vicariance and more recent founder events. In Southeast Asia, Miocene dispersal was a main factor in shaping the modern species distributions. A recurrent theme across different viviparid taxa is that many species living in lentic waters exhibit sculptured shells, whereas only one strongly sculptured species is known from lotic environments. We show that such shell sculpture is habitat-dependent and indeed evolved several times independently in lentic River Snails. Considerably high transition rates between shell types in lentic habitats probably caused the co-occurrence of morphologically distinct shell types in several lakes. In contrast, directional evolution towards smooth shells in lotic habitats, as identified in the present analyses, explains why sculptured shells are rarely found in these habitats. However, the specific factors that promoted changes in shell morphology require further work.
1985 related Products with: Global Diversification Dynamics Since the Jurassic: Low Dispersal and Habitat-Dependent Evolution Explain Hotspots of Diversity and Shell Disparity in River Snails (Viviparidae).
#32061131 // Save this To Up
Reliable Phylogenetic Regressions for Multivariate Comparative Data: Illustration with the MANOVA and Application to the Effect of Diet on Mandible Morphology in Phyllostomid Bats.Understanding what shapes species phenotypes over macroevolutionary timescales from comparative data often requires studying the relationship between phenotypes and putative explanatory factors or testing for differences in phenotypes across species groups. In phyllostomid bats for example, is mandible morphology associated to diet preferences? Performing such analyses depends upon reliable phylogenetic regression techniques and associated tests (e.g. phylogenetic Generalized Least Squares, pGLS and phylogenetic analyses of variance and covariance, pANOVA, pANCOVA). While these tools are well established for univariate data, their multivariate counterparts are lagging behind. This is particularly true for high dimensional phenotypic data, such as morphometric data. Here we implement much-needed likelihood-based multivariate pGLS, pMANOVA and pMANCOVA, and use a recently developed penalized likelihood framework to extend their application to the difficult case when the number of traits p approaches or exceeds the number of species n. We then focus on the pMANOVA and use intensive simulations to assess the performance of the approach as p increases, under various levels of phylogenetic signal and correlations between the traits, phylogenetic structure in the predictors, and under various types of phenotypic differences across species groups. We show that our approach outperforms available alternatives under all circumstances, with greater power to detect phenotypic differences across species group when they exist, and a lower risk of improperly detecting nonexistent differences. Finally, we provide an empirical illustration of our pMANOVA on a geometric-morphometric dataset describing mandible morphology in phyllostomid bats along with data on their diet preferences. Overall our results show significant differences between ecological groups. Our approach, implemented in the R package mvMORPH and illustrated in a tutorial for end-users, provides efficient multivariate phylogenetic regression tools for understanding what shapes phenotypic differences across species.
2789 related Products with: Reliable Phylogenetic Regressions for Multivariate Comparative Data: Illustration with the MANOVA and Application to the Effect of Diet on Mandible Morphology in Phyllostomid Bats.FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu FDA Standard Frozen Tissu TCP-1 theta antibody Sour Multiple organ tumor tiss Thermal Shaker with cooli MultiGene Gradient therm (7’-Benzyloxy-indolymet FDA Standard Frozen Tissu Tube Strips 8 thermo Stri
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dEMBF v2.0: An updated database of Enzymes for Microalgal Biofuel Feedstock.In light of increasing algal genomics data and knowledge of biosynthetic pathways responsible for biofuel production, an integrated resource for easy access to all information is essential to improve our understanding of algal lipid metabolism. Against this backdrop, dEMBF v2.0, a significantly updated and improved version of our database of microalgae lipid biosynthetic enzymes for biofuel production has been developed. dEMBF v2.0 now contains a comprehensive annotation of 2018 sequences encoding 35 enzymes, an increase of over seven-fold as compared to the first version. Other improved features include an increase of species coverage to 32 algal genomes, analysis of additional metabolic pathways, expanded annotation thoroughly detailing sequence and structural features, including enzyme-ligand interactions, and integration of supporting experimental evidence to demonstrate the role of enzymes in increasing lipid content. Along with a complete redesign of the interface, the updated database provides several inbuilt tools and user-friendly functionalities for a more interactive and dynamic visualization of data.
2044 related Products with: dEMBF v2.0: An updated database of Enzymes for Microalgal Biofuel Feedstock.
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