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Enhanced hydrolysis and acidification of cellulose at high loading for methane production via anaerobic digestion supplemented with high mobility nanobubble water.

In this study, CH production from anaerobic digestion (AD) of refractory cellulose was investigated at a high loading of 3.5 (VS/VS) under nanobubble water (NBW) addition. A longer proton spin-spin relaxation time (2611-2906 ms) of NBW during 35 days' storage reflected its high mobility and diffusion of water molecules. Higher volatile fatty acids were yielded at the hydrolysis-acidification stage under NBW addition. Methanogenesis tests showed that Air-NBW and CO-NBW supplementation accelerated the utilization of crystalline cellulose, achieving methane yields of 264 and 246 mL CH/g-VS, increasing by 18% and 10% compared to deionized water addition (the control), respectively. In addition, under NBW addition the cellulose crystallinity reduction was enhanced by 14-20% with microbial community being enriched with hydrolytic and methanogenic bacteria. Results from this work suggest that NBW environment with no chemical addition and relatively low energy consumption is advantageous for enhanced AD process of cellulosic biomass.

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Prediction of survival of HPV16-negative, p16-negative oral cavity cancer patients using a 13-gene signature: A multicenter study using FFPE samples.

To test the performance of an oral cancer prognostic 13-gene signature for the prediction of survival of patients diagnosed with HPV-negative and p16-negative oral cavity cancer.

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Oral cavity (tongue and p Oral cavity disease spect Oral cavity disease spect Oral cavity cancer test t Cancer Samples: Rectum A Colon cancer tissue array Tetramethylrhodamine, eth PARP in vivo Pharmacodyna Goat Anti-LPS (gram negat Gram Negative Endotoxin a QVD-OPh Negative Control; Rabbit Anti-PGP9.5 negati

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Stage-specific metabolomic changes in equine oviductal fluid: New insights into the equine fertilization environment.

A repeatable protocol for equine in vitro fertilization (IVF) has remained elusive. This is likely, in part, due to suboptimal composition of capacitation or IVF media that are currently in use. Hence, we aimed to analyse the metabolome of equine oviductal fluid (OF) at the pre- (PRE) and immediate post-ovulatory (PST) stages using proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy (H NMR). Oviductal fluid from eight PRE and six PST mares were used to prepare a total of five samples per group. A total of 18 metabolites were identified. The five metabolites with the highest concentrations in the OF samples were lactate, myoinositol, creatine, alanine and carnitine. Only fumarate and glycine showed significant differences in their concentrations between PRE and PST OF samples, with higher concentrations in the PST samples. In a preliminary study, stallion spermatozoa (n = 3 ejaculates) were incubated with different concentrations of PST OF from one mare (0, 0.0625, 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 or 1%; v:v). After 4 h of sperm incubation, protein tyrosine phosphorylation (PY) by western blotting, sperm motility, and acrosomal status were evaluated. An increase of PY was observed in sperm from two stallions when treated with 0.0625% and 0.125% of OF; however no change in PY was noted in the other stallion. There were no effects of OF on spermatozoa motility or acrosome status. These results provide the first information on the metabolomics of equine OF at different stages of the estrus cycle, and present the possibility that OF may affect PY in stallion spermatozoa.

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Examining maternal and environmental transfer of mercury into American alligator eggs.

American alligators are exposed to mercury (Hg) throughout their natural range and may maternally transfer Hg into their eggs. Wildlife species are highly sensitive to Hg toxicity during embryonic development and neonatal life, and information on Hg transfer into eggs is critical when attempting to understand the effects of Hg exposure on developing oviparous organisms. To examine Hg transfer in alligators, the objectives of the present study were to 1) determine Hg concentrations in yolk (embryonic and neonatal food source) from wild alligator eggs collected from three locations - Yawkey Wildlife Center SC (YWC), Lake Apopka FL (LA), and Lake Woodruff FL (LW); 2) examine the relationship between THg concentrations in wild alligator nest material and egg yolk at Merritt Island National Wildlife Refuge, FL; 3) examine the Hg concentrations in wild maternal female alligators (blood) and the THg in corresponding egg yolks and embryos across three nesting seasons at a single location (YWC), and evaluate the relationship between nesting female THg concentrations (blood) and their estimated age and number of nesting years (YWC); and 4) assess the transfer of biologically-relevant Hg concentrations (based on Hg measured in maternal female blood) into embryos using an egg-dosing experiment. Mean total Hg (THg) concentrations observed at each site were 26.3 ng/g ± 11.0 ng/g (YWC), 8.8 ng/g ± 5.1 ng/g (LA), and 22.6 ng/g ± 6.3 ng/g (LW). No relationship was observed between THg in alligator nest material and corresponding yolk samples, nor between THg in maternal alligator blood and estimated age and number of nesting years of these animals. However, significant positive relationships were observed between THg in blood of nesting female alligators and THg in their corresponding egg yolk. We observed that 12.8% of the maternal blood THg is found in the corresponding egg yolk, and a highly significant correlation was observed between the two sample types (r = 0.66; p < 0.0001). The egg dosing experiment revealed that Hg did not transfer through the eggshell at developmental stage 19. Overall, this study provides new information regarding Hg transfer in American alligators which can improve biomonitoring efforts and may inform ecotoxicological investigations and population management programs in areas of high Hg contamination.

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Utility of incorporating next-generation sequencing (NGS) in an Asian non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) population: Incremental yield of actionable alterations and cost-effectiveness analysis.

There is an expanding list of therapeutically relevant biomarkers for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and molecular profiling at diagnosis is paramount. Tissue attrition in scaling traditional single biomarker assays from small biopsies is an increasingly encountered problem. We sought to compare the performance of targeted next-generation sequencing (NGS) panels with traditional assays and correlate the mutational landscape with PD-L1 status in Singaporean patients.

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Deep Learning Reveals Cancer Metastasis and Therapeutic Antibody Targeting in the Entire Body.

Reliable detection of disseminated tumor cells and of the biodistribution of tumor-targeting therapeutic antibodies within the entire body has long been needed to better understand and treat cancer metastasis. Here, we developed an integrated pipeline for automated quantification of cancer metastases and therapeutic antibody targeting, named DeepMACT. First, we enhanced the fluorescent signal of cancer cells more than 100-fold by applying the vDISCO method to image metastasis in transparent mice. Second, we developed deep learning algorithms for automated quantification of metastases with an accuracy matching human expert manual annotation. Deep learning-based quantification in 5 different metastatic cancer models including breast, lung, and pancreatic cancer with distinct organotropisms allowed us to systematically analyze features such as size, shape, spatial distribution, and the degree to which metastases are targeted by a therapeutic monoclonal antibody in entire mice. DeepMACT can thus considerably improve the discovery of effective antibody-based therapeutics at the pre-clinical stage. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

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A Spatiotemporal Organ-Wide Gene Expression and Cell Atlas of the Developing Human Heart.

The process of cardiac morphogenesis in humans is incompletely understood. Its full characterization requires a deep exploration of the organ-wide orchestration of gene expression with a single-cell spatial resolution. Here, we present a molecular approach that reveals the comprehensive transcriptional landscape of cell types populating the embryonic heart at three developmental stages and that maps cell-type-specific gene expression to specific anatomical domains. Spatial transcriptomics identified unique gene profiles that correspond to distinct anatomical regions in each developmental stage. Human embryonic cardiac cell types identified by single-cell RNA sequencing confirmed and enriched the spatial annotation of embryonic cardiac gene expression. In situ sequencing was then used to refine these results and create a spatial subcellular map for the three developmental phases. Finally, we generated a publicly available web resource of the human developing heart to facilitate future studies on human cardiogenesis.

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Epidermal Growth Factor ( Epidermal Growth Factor ( Anti beta3 AR Human, Poly pCAMBIA2300 Vector (No Re Goat Anti-Human Androgen Human alpha1-antitripsin B-cell linker protein ant AccuRapid™ Cell Free Pr Human IFN-alpha (multi-su Mouse Anti-Human CD40 (CD FDA normal and tumor orga Astra Blue 6GLL, Stain fo

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A Translation-Activating Function of MIWI/piRNA during Mouse Spermiogenesis.

Spermiogenesis is a highly orchestrated developmental process during which chromatin condensation decouples transcription from translation. Spermiogenic mRNAs are transcribed earlier and stored in a translationally inert state until needed for translation; however, it remains largely unclear how such repressed mRNAs become activated during spermiogenesis. We previously reported that the MIWI/piRNA machinery is responsible for mRNA elimination during late spermiogenesis in preparation for spermatozoa production. Here we unexpectedly discover that the same machinery is also responsible for activating translation of a subset of spermiogenic mRNAs to coordinate with morphological transformation into spermatozoa. Such action requires specific base-pairing interactions of piRNAs with target mRNAs in their 3' UTRs, which activates translation through coupling with cis-acting AU-rich elements to nucleate the formation of a MIWI/piRNA/eIF3f/HuR super-complex in a developmental stage-specific manner. These findings reveal a critical role of the piRNA system in translation activation, which we show is functionally required for spermatid development.

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