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#33096568   2020/10/22 To Up

Temporal Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Obesity in US Adults.

The integration of time with dietary patterns throughout a day, or temporal dietary patterns (TDPs), have been linked with dietary quality but relations to health are unknown.
Marah M Aqeel, Jiaqi Guo, Luotao Lin, Saul B Gelfand, Edward J Delp, Anindya Bhadra, Elizabeth A Richards, Erin Hennessy, Heather A Eicher-Miller

1048 related Products with: Temporal Dietary Patterns Are Associated with Obesity in US Adults.

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#33096552   2020/10/22 To Up

Food Insecurity is Directly Associated with the Use of Health Services for Adverse Health Events among Older Adults.

In 2018, 14.3 million US households experienced food insecurity, which has been linked to negative health outcomes such as depression and anxiety, diabetes, and hypertension. This connection is particularly important for older adults, who are at greater risk than younger adults for developing certain health conditions.
Ariella K-L Spitzer, Marisa P R Shenk, James G Mabli

2136 related Products with: Food Insecurity is Directly Associated with the Use of Health Services for Adverse Health Events among Older Adults.

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#33096511   2020/10/10 To Up

Spatial variability in prevalence and genospecies distributions of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from ixodid ticks collected in southern Germany.

Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common arthropod-borne disease in Europe and North America and is caused by members of the Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato (Bbsl) species complex. These bacteria are transmitted by ixodid tick vectors and therefore human LB risk is influenced by the prevalence and distribution of Bbsl genospecies within tick vectors throughout the wild. These distributions can easily change over spatiotemporal scales and, to understand LB risk fully, up to date information on prevalence and distribution of Bbsl is required. The last survey of Bbsl in southern Germany, including parts of the Munich metropolitan area, was completed in 2006 and new data is needed. Ixodid ticks were collected in seven plots located in and around Munich, Germany, from March to July 2019 and were screened for Bbsl. Borrelia burgdorferi s. l. positive ticks (52 adults, 158 nymphs) were found in all plots and adults (0-61.5 % Bbsl positive/plot) and nymphs (17.4-59.5 % Bbsl positive/plot) did not differ significantly in their overall Bbsl prevalence. The number of Bbsl positive nymphs did vary significantly between plots but the number of positive adults did not. In total, six Bbsl genospecies were located with B. afzelii and B. garinii dominating. Additionally, the relapsing-fever species B. miyamotoi was found in two sampling plots. Our results highlight the variability in Bbsl prevalence and genospecies distribution over short geographic distances and aid in understanding LB risk in and around the Munich metropolitan area.
Robert E Rollins, Zehra Yeyin, Maja Wyczanska, Nikolas Alig, Sabrina Hepner, Volker Fingerle, Gabriele Margos, Noémie S Becker

1007 related Products with: Spatial variability in prevalence and genospecies distributions of Borrelia burgdorferi sensu lato from ixodid ticks collected in southern Germany.

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#33096406   2020/10/20 To Up

Seasonal movements of Gulf of Mexico sperm whales following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and the limitations of impact assessments.

As part of the Deepwater Horizon Oil Spill Natural Resource Damage Assessment in the Gulf of Mexico, we conducted a large passive acoustic survey across the eastern Gulf continental shelf edge to assess impacts to sperm whale population. In the months immediately after the spill, sperm whale occurrence was significantly higher in areas closest to the spill. Over the following seasons in 2010-2011, we documented cyclical patterns of decreased and increased occurrence suggesting that this population exhibits a seasonal occurrence pattern in the region, with seasonal movements to other regions, and not likely directly influenced by the oil spill. Unfortunately, a lack of adequately scaled, pre-spill data on sperm whales, along with limitations on the survey duration constrain our ability to infer spill-related changes in sperm whale occurrence. However, our study establishes post-disaster baseline data for continued monitoring, and an expanded study design could provide a model for continued monitoring.
Janelle L Morano, Jamey T Tielens, Charles A Muirhead, Bobbi J Estabrook, Patrick J Sullivan, Peter J Dugan, Christopher W Clark, Aaron N Rice

2874 related Products with: Seasonal movements of Gulf of Mexico sperm whales following the Deepwater Horizon oil spill and the limitations of impact assessments.

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#33096357   2020/10/16 To Up

Mental illness and the risk of self- and other-directed aggression: Results from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health.

Aggression and mental illness have been classically interlinked, often causing controversy and debate. Previous studies have shown that mental illness can be a risk factor to self- and other-directed aggression. However, these associations have rarely been simultaneously studied within the same population. Therefore, we aimed to study whether psychiatric disorders differentially increase the likelihood of one subtype of aggression over the other. We used the publicly available data of the National Survey on Drug Use and Health (NSDUH) from 2008 through 2014, for a total sample of 270,227 adult respondents. We designed our independent variable according to three categories: no mental illness (NMI), low or moderate (LMMI) and serious (SMI). We constructed regression models to estimate the odds ratios for those having a mental illness committing (a) a subtype of aggression over the past year compared with no aggression and (b) other-directed compared to self-directed aggression. We found that most respondents with mental illness reported no past-year aggression of any type. However, respondents with mental illness had higher odds of perpetrating all subtypes of aggression. Additionally, respondents with LMMI and SMI were respectively 1.7 and 3 times more likely to engage in self- rather than other-directed aggression. Future research should focus on identifying accurate and reliable predictors of self- and other-directed aggression among individuals with mental illness.
Elias Ghossoub, Michele Cherro, Carla Akil, Yara Gharzeddine

1760 related Products with: Mental illness and the risk of self- and other-directed aggression: Results from the National Survey on Drug Use and Health.

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#33096339   2020/09/19 To Up

Is war hard on the heart? Gender, wartime stress and late life cardiovascular conditions in a population of Vietnamese older adults.

Populations in the global south are disproportionately exposed to the stressors of development, disaster and armed conflict, all of which heighten cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. We consider how war-related stressors exert a lasting influence upon population health, in particular the cardiovascular health of war survivors now entering older adulthood. Data come from the 2018 Vietnam Health and Aging Study conducted among 2447 northern Vietnamese adults age 60 and older. We conduct survey-adjusted logistic regression analyses to examine the associations among respondents' wartime exposure to combat and physical threat, malevolent environment conditions, and four CVD conditions (hypertension, dyslipidemia, heart disease, and stroke). We examine posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) as it mediates the association between wartime stress exposures and late life CVD, and gender as it moderates the relationship between wartime stressors and CVD. We find that exposure to wartime combat and violence, as well as malevolent living conditions, exhibit significant, positive associations with cardiovascular conditions. These associations are mediated by the severity of recent PTSD symptoms. For certain CVD conditions, particularly hypertension, the associations between wartime stressors and late life cardiovascular conditions diverge across gender with women experiencing a greater penalty for their exposure to war-related stressors than their male counterparts. We conclude that the stressors of war and resultant PTSD, widespread in this cohort of Vietnamese older adults who endured myriad forms of war exposure during their young adulthood, exhibit modest, yet significant associations with late-life cardiovascular conditions. Women, especially those exposed to wartime violence and combat, bear this CVD burden alongside men.
Kim Korinek, Yvette Young, Bussarawan Teerawichitchainan, Nguyen Thi Kim Chuc, Miles Kovnick, Zachary Zimmer

2435 related Products with: Is war hard on the heart? Gender, wartime stress and late life cardiovascular conditions in a population of Vietnamese older adults.

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#33096227   2020/10/20 To Up

Provider and Patient Perspectives on a New Tangible Decision Aid Tool to Support Patient-Centered Contraceptive Counseling with Adolescents and Young Adults.

Despite the benefits of patient-centered contraceptive care, many adolescents and young adults do not receive such care. The objective of this study was to develop and evaluate the Tangible Tool, a decision aid to support patient-centered contraceptive counseling with adolescents and young adults in a clinic setting. DESIGN, SETTING, PARTICIPANTS, INTERVENTION, AND MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: The Tangible Tool is a contraceptive counseling decision aid that allows patients to see and feel life-size "tangible" models of the range of contraceptive methods. The Tool was developed by a team of designers, adolescents, clinicians, and researchers using human-centered design. From December 2019 to March 2020, we conducted a pilot study to evaluate the usability, feasibility, and acceptability of the Tangible Tool with ten contraceptive care providers and 40 adolescent and young adult patients (ages 12 to 29) at two Chicago clinics. We calculated descriptive statistics for patient survey data, and qualitatively analyzed provider interview transcripts for salient themes using recursive abstraction.
Soo Young Lee, Adriana L Brodyn, Rebecca S Koppel, Crystal P Tyler, Amanda A Geppert, Amber I Truehart, Melissa L Gilliam

2727 related Products with: Provider and Patient Perspectives on a New Tangible Decision Aid Tool to Support Patient-Centered Contraceptive Counseling with Adolescents and Young Adults.

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#33096126   2020/10/20 To Up

Implementation science: Scaling a training intervention to include IUDs and implants in contraceptive services in primary care.

Building capacity for contraceptive services in primary care settings, including for intrauterine devices (IUDs) and implants, can help to broaden contraceptive access across the US. Following a randomized trial in family planning clinics, we brought a provider training intervention to other clinical settings including primary care in all regions. This implementation science study evaluates a national scale-up of a contraceptive training intervention to varied practice settings from 2013 to 2019 among 3216 clinic staff serving an estimated 1.6 million annual contraceptive patients. We measured providers' knowledge and clinical practice changes regarding IUDs and implants using survey data. We estimated the overall intervention effect, and its relative effectiveness in primary care settings, with generalized estimating equations for clustered data. Patient-centered counseling improved, along with comfort with method provision and removal. Provider knowledge increased (p < 0.001), as did evidence-based counseling for IUDs (aOR 3.3 95% CI 2.8-3.9) and implants (aOR 3.5, 95% CI 3.0-4.1), and clinician competency in levonorgestrel IUDs (aOR 2.5 95% CI 2.1 3.1) and implants (aOR 2.4 95% CI 2.0-2.9). While proficiency was lower initially in primary care, gains were significant and at times greater than in Planned Parenthood health clinics. This intervention was effectively scaled, including in primary care settings with limited prior experience with these methods. Recent changes to Title X family planning funding rules exclude several large family planning providers, shifting greater responsibility to primary care and other settings. Scaling effective contraceptive interventions is one way to ensure capacity to offer patients full contraceptive services.
Cynthia C Harper, Alison B Comfort, Maya Blum, Corinne H Rocca, Charles E McCulloch, Lavanya Rao, Nishant Shah, Helen Oquendo Del Toro, Suzan Goodman

1326 related Products with: Implementation science: Scaling a training intervention to include IUDs and implants in contraceptive services in primary care.

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#33096104   2020/10/20 To Up

Lipid temporal trends in Normal weight youth.

Atherosclerosis begins in youth, partly driven by excess weight(EW) and abnormal lipids. Despite pediatric obesity worsening, lipids improved.Given the relation between EW and abnormal lipids, changes in normal weight (NW) youth may be relevant. We examined the proportions and temporal trendsof youth with abnormal lipids who were NW versus EW.
Justin P Zachariah, Teniola Shittu, Yunfei Wang

1106 related Products with: Lipid temporal trends in Normal weight youth.



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