Search results for: tissues
#32650324 2020/07/10 To Up
Biofabrication of endothelial cell, dermal fibroblast, and multilayered keratinocyte layers for skin tissue engineering.The skin serves a substantial number of physiological purposes and is exposed to numerous biological and chemical agents owing to its large surface area and accessibility. Yet, current skin models are limited in emulating the multifaceted functions of skin tissues due to a lack of effort on the optimization of biomaterials and techniques at different skin layers for building skin frameworks. Here, we use biomaterial-based approaches and bioengineered techniques to develop a 3D skin model with layers of endothelial cell networks, dermal fibroblasts, and multilayered keratinocytes. Analysis of mechanical properties of gelatin methacryloyl (GelMA)-based bioinks mixed with different portions of alginate revealed bioprinted endothelium could be better modeled to optimize endothelial cell viability with a mixture of 7.5% GelMA and 2% alginate. Matrix stiffness plays a crucial role in modulating produced levels of Pro-Collagen I alpha-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-1 in human dermal fibroblasts and affecting their viability, proliferation, and spreading. Moreover, seeding human keratinocytes with gelatin-coating multiple times proves helpful in reducing culture time to create multilayered keratinocytes while maintaining their viability. The ability to fabricate selected biomaterials for each layer of skin tissues has implications in the biofabrication of skin systems for regenerative medicine and disease modeling.
Natan Barros, Hanjun Kim, Marcus J Goudie, KangJu Lee, Praveen Bandaru, Ethan A Banton, Einollah Sarikhani, Wujin Sun, Shiming Zhang, Hyun-Jong Cho, Martin C Hartel, Serge Ostrovidov, Samad Ahadian, Saber Hussain, Nureddin Ashammakhi, Mehmet R Dokmeci, Rondinelli Donizetti Herculano, Junmin Lee, Ali Khademhosseini
2127 related Products with: Biofabrication of endothelial cell, dermal fibroblast, and multilayered keratinocyte layers for skin tissue engineering.50 assays
#32650323 2020/07/10 To Up
Feasibility of quasi-prompt PET-based range verification in proton therapy.Compared to photon therapy, proton therapy allows a better conformation of the dose to the tumour volume with reduced radiation dose to co-irradiated tissues. Inverification techniques including Positron Emission Tomography (PET) have been proposed as quality assurance tools to mitigate proton range uncertainties. Detection of differences between planned and actual dose delivery on a short timescale provides a fast trigger for corrective actions. Conventional PET-based imaging ofO (T= 2 min) andC (T= 20 min) distributions precludes such immediate feedback. We here present a demonstration of near real-time range verification by means of PET imaging ofN (T= 11 ms). PMMA and graphite targets were irradiated with a 150 MeV proton pencil beam consisting of a series of pulses of 10 ms beam-on and 90 ms beam-off. Two modules of a modified Siemens Biograph mCT PET scanner (21 × 21 cmeach), installed 25 cm apart, were used to image the beam-induced PET activity during the beam-off periods. The modifications enable the detectors to be switched off during the beam-on periods.N images were reconstructed using planar tomography. Using a 1D projection of the 2D reconstructedN image, the activity range was obtained from a fit of the activity profile with a sigmoid function. Range shifts due to modified target configurations were assessed for multiples of the clinically relevant 10protons per pulse (approximately equal to the highest intensity spots in the pencil beam scanning delivery of a dose of 1 Gy over a cubic 1 liter volume). The standard deviation of the activity range, determined from 30 datasets obtained from three irradiations on PMMA and graphite targets, was found to be 2.5 and 2.6 mm (1σ) with 10protons per pulse and 0.9 and 0.8 mm (1σ) with 10protons per pulse. Analytical extrapolation of the results from this study shows that using a scanner with a solid angle coverage of 57%, with optimized detector switching and spot delivery times much smaller than theN half-life, an activity range measurement precision of 2.0 mm (1σ) and 1.3 mm (1σ) within 50 milliseconds into an irradiation with 4 × 10and 10protons per pencil beam spot can be potentially realized. Aggregated imaging of neighbouring spots or, if possible, increasing the number of protons for a few probe beam spots will enable the realization of higher precision range measurement.
Ikechi Samuel Ozoemelam, Emiel R van der Graaf, Marc-Jan van Goethem, Maciej Kapusta, Nan Zhang, Sytze Brandenburg, Peter Dendooven
2848 related Products with: Feasibility of quasi-prompt PET-based range verification in proton therapy.1 Set1 Set1 Set50000 Units100 μg2 100 μg96 wells (1 kit)
#32650222 2020/06/06 To Up
Distinct utilization of biotin in and between adipose and brain during aging is associated with a lipogenic shift in Wistar rat brain.Tissue-specific metabolism determines their functions that collectively sense and respond to numerous stress cues to achieve systemic homeostasis. Chronic stress skews such metabolic profiles and leads to failure of organs as evidenced by a bias towards lipid synthesis and storage in the aging brain, muscle, and liver under Alzheimer's disease, sarcopenia, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, respectively. In contrast, the tissue destined for lipid synthesis and storage, such as adipose, limits its threshold and develops diabetes mellitus. However, the underlying factors that contribute to this lipogenic shift between organs are unknown. From this perspective, differential biotin utilization between lipid-rich tissues such as adipose and brain during aging was hypothesized owing to the established role of biotin in lipogenesis. The same was tested using young and aged Wistar rats. We found that adipose-specific biotin content was much higher than the brain irrespective of aging status, as well as its associated cues. However, within tissues, the adipose fails to maintain its biotinylation levels during aging whereas the brain seizes more biotin and exhibits lipid accumulation. Furthermore, mimicking the age-related stress cues in vitro such as high glucose and endoplasmic reticulum stress deprive the astroglial biotin content, but not that of adipocytes. Lipid accumulation in the aging brain was also correlated with increased S-adenosylmethionine levels and biotin utilization by astrocytes. In summary, differential biotin utilization between adipose and brain under aging and their respective cell types like adipocytes and astrocytes under age-associated stress cues connects well with the lipogenic shift in rat brain.
Ramaian Santhaseela Anand, Dhasarathan Ganesan, Senthilraja Selvam, Sudarshana Rajasekaran, Tamilselvan Jayavelu
1191 related Products with: Distinct utilization of biotin in and between adipose and brain during aging is associated with a lipogenic shift in Wistar rat brain.50 UG96 tests100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized100ug Lyophilized
#32650165 2020/07/01 To Up
Cell-by-cell estimation of PAH sorption and subsequent toxicity in marine phytoplankton.Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) have elicited increasing concern due to their ubiquitous occurrence in coastal marine environments and resultant toxicity in organisms. Due to their lipophilic nature, PAHs tend to accumulate in phytoplankton cells and thus subsequently transfer to other compartments of the marine ecosystem. The intrinsic fluorescence properties of PAHs in the ultraviolet (UV)/blue spectral range have recently been exploited to investigate their uptake modes, localization, and aggregation in various biological tissues. Here, we quantitatively evaluate the sorption of two model PAHs (phenanthrene and pyrene) in three marine phytoplankton species (Chaetoceros tenuissimus, Thalassiosira sp. and Proteomonas sp.) using a combined approach of UV excitation flow cytometry and fluorescence microscopy. Over a 48-h exposure to a gradient of PAHs, Thalassiosira sp. showed the highest proportion of PAH-sorbed cells (29% and 97% of total abundance for phenanthrene and pyrene, respectively), which may be attributed to its relatively high total lipid content (33.87 percent dry weight). Moreover, cell-specific pulse amplitude modulation (PAM) microscope fluorometry revealed that PAH sorption significantly reduced the photosynthetic quantum efficiency (F/F) of individual phytoplankton cells. We describe a rapid and precise hybrid method for the detection of sorption of PAHs on phytoplankton cells. Our results emphasize the ecologically relevant sub-lethal effects of PAHs in phytoplankton at the cellular level, even at concentrations where no growth inhibition was apparent. This work is the first study to address the cell-specific impacts of fluorescent toxicants in a more relevant toxicant-sorbed subpopulation; these cell-specific impacts have to date been unidentified in traditional population-based phytoplankton toxicity assays.
Sreejith Kottuparambil, Susana Agusti
1049 related Products with: Cell-by-cell estimation of PAH sorption and subsequent toxicity in marine phytoplankton.100ug Lyophilized100 ml.100ug Lyophilized1 kit24 tests1 kit5 mg100ug Lyophilized
#32650164 2020/07/01 To Up
Evaluating toxicity impacts of environmental exposed chromium on small Indian mongoose (Urva auropunctatus) hematological, biochemical and histopathological functioning.S
Shaista Andleeb, Zulfiqar Ahmad, Tariq Mahmood, Shenxu Bao, Abdullah Arif Saeed, Sunil Kumar Jha
2272 related Products with: Evaluating toxicity impacts of environmental exposed chromium on small Indian mongoose (Urva auropunctatus) hematological, biochemical and histopathological functioning.1,000 tests200ug 25 ml Ready-to-use 1 mg1 mg2 1.00 flask
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#32650140 2020/07/07 To Up
Fascinating impact of silicon and silicon transporters in plants: A review.Silicon (Si) is a metalloid which is gaining worldwide attention of plant scientists due to its ameliorating impact on plants' growth and development. The beneficial response of Si is observed predominantly under numerous abiotic and biotic stress conditions. However, under favorable conditions, most of the plant can grow without it. Therefore, Si has yet not been fully accepted as essential element rather it is being considered as quasi-essential for plants' growth. Si is also known to enhance resilience in plants by reducing the plant's stress. Besides its second most abundance on the earth crust, most of the soils lack plant available form of Si i.e. silicic acid. In this regard, understanding the role of Si in plant metabolism, its uptake from roots and transport to aerial tissues along with its ionomics and proteomics under different circumstances is of great concern. Plants have evolved a well-optimized Si-transport system including various transporter proteins like Low silicon1 (Lsi1), Low silicon2 (Lsi2), Low silicon3 (Lsi3) and Low silicon6 (Lsi6) at specific sub-cellular locations along with the expression profiling that creates precisely coordinated network among these transporters, which also facilitate uptake and accumulation of Si. Though, an ample amount of information is available pertinent to the solute specificity, active sites, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation of these transporter genes. Similarly, the information regarding transporters involved in Si accumulation in different organelles is also available particularly in silica cells occurred in poales. But in this review, we have attempted to compile studies related to plants vis à vis Si, its role in abiotic and biotic stress, its uptake in various parts of plants via different types of Si-transporters, expression pattern, localization and the solute specificity. Besides these, this review will also provide the compiled knowledge about the genetic variation among crop plants vis à vis enhanced Si uptake and related benefits.
Shweta Gaur, Jitendra Kumar, Dharmendra Kumar, Devendra Kumar Chauhan, Sheo Mohan Prasad, Prabhat Kumar Srivastava
2808 related Products with: Fascinating impact of silicon and silicon transporters in plants: A review.1 Set100 μg100 μg100 μg1 mg96 assays100 μg1 mg0.1mg 100ul4 Membranes/Box
#32650107 2020/07/02 To Up
Arsenic resistance in fungi conferred by extracellular bonding and vacuole-septa compartmentalization.Microbes play a crucial role in arsenic (As) biogeochemical cycling and show great potential for environmental detoxification and bioremediation. Efflux, transformation, and compartmentalization are key processes in microbial As resistance. However, organelle specific As detoxification and fate during intracellular transfer and compartmentalization is not well understood. We conducted a time course experiment (2-5 days) of the organelle separation for fungal strains to explore subcellular As distributions. After exposure to 10 mg L of arsenate (As(V)), the As accumulation among fungal organelles was generally in the order of extracellular (65 %) > cell wall (15 %) > vacuole (10 %) > other organelles (8 %). The vacuole As accounted for 55 % of the protoplast As. Extracellular bonding and vacuole compartmentalization were the main mechanisms of As resistance in the fungal strains tested. Glutathione (GSH) increases in fungal protoplast in response to As toxicity, acting as a reasonable indicator of As tolerance. Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy indicated that carboxyl and amines groups within fungal cell walls potentially bind with As preventing As influx. Further analysis using scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) identified that fungal septa besides vacuole could also immobilize As.
Lijuan Li, Xibai Zeng, Paul N Williams, Xin Gao, Lijuan Zhang, Junzheng Zhang, Hong Shan, Shiming Su
1907 related Products with: Arsenic resistance in fungi conferred by extracellular bonding and vacuole-septa compartmentalization.96 tests96 tests96 tests96 tests1 Set1 Set100 ml1 Set100 μg 0.1 mg
#32650064 2020/07/01 To Up
Anti-diabetic properties of genistein-chromium (III) complex in db/db diabetic mice and its sub-acute toxicity evaluation in normal mice.In this study, chromium (III) complex was synthesized from genistein (GEN) which had good hypoglycemic activity and inorganic chromium (III) element, and its hypoglycemic activity and sub-acute toxicity were studied.
Pengshou Li, Yujia Cao, Ge Song, Baosheng Zhao, Qixiang Ma, Ziyong Li, Chaojun He
2968 related Products with: Anti-diabetic properties of genistein-chromium (III) complex in db/db diabetic mice and its sub-acute toxicity evaluation in normal mice.50 ul100 ul
#32650031 2020/07/07 To Up
Enolase inhibition alters metabolic hormones and inflammatory factors to promote neuroprotection in spinal cord injury.Enolase inhibition is a potential therapeutic strategy currently being investigated for treatment of spinal cord injury (SCI) as it reduces pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines, alters metabolic factors, and reduces gliosis in acute SCI. Herein, the role of enolase in SCI has been examined to better understand the effects of this enzyme on inflammation, metabolic hormones, glial cell activation, and neuroprotection under these shorter injury conditions. Immunohistochemical analyses of inflammatory markers vimentin, Cox-2, and caspase-1 indicated that enolase inhibition attenuated the elevated levels of inflammation seen following SCI. Iba1, GFAP, NFP, and CSPG staining indicated that enolase inhibition with prolonged administration of ENOblock reduced microglia/astrocyte activation and lead to enhanced neuroprotection in SCI. An analysis of metabolic hormones revealed that ENOblock treatment significantly upregulated plasma concentrations of peptide YY, glucagon-like peptide 1, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide, glucagon, and insulin hormones as compared to vehicle-treated controls (Mann-Whitney, p≤ 0.05). ENOblock did not have a significant effect on plasma concentrations of pancreatic polypeptide. Interestingly, ENOblock treatment inhibited chondroitin sulfate proteoglycan (CSPG), which is produced by activated glia and serves to block regrowth of axons across the lesion site following injury. An increased level of NeuN and MBP with reduced caspase-1 was detected in SCI tissues after ENOblock treatment, suggesting preservation of myelin and induction of neuroprotection. ENOblock also induced improved motor function in SCI rats, indicating a role for enolase in modulating inflammatory and metabolic factors in SCI with important implications for clinical consideration.
Rachel Polcyn, Mollie Capone, Denise Matzelle, Azim Hossain, Raghavendar Chandran, Naren L Banik, Azizul Haque
2506 related Products with: Enolase inhibition alters metabolic hormones and inflammatory factors to promote neuroprotection in spinal cord injury.500 gm.250ul96 assays 0.1 mg2ug2ug96 wells1 mg
#32650003 2020/07/07 To Up
Tenascin-C induces phenotypic changes in fibroblasts to myofibroblasts with high contractility through the integrin αvβ1/TGF-β/SMAD signaling axis in human breast cancer.Tenascin-C (TNC) is strongly expressed by fibroblasts and cancer cells in breast cancer. To assess the effects of TNC on stromal formation, we examined phenotypic changes in human mammary fibroblasts (HMFs) treated with TNC. The addition of TNC significantly up-regulated α-smooth muscle actin (SMA) and calponin. TNC increased the number of α-SMA- and/or calponin-positive cells with well-developed stress fibers in immunofluorescence, which enhanced contractile ability in collagen gel contraction. The treatment with TNC also significantly up-regulated its own synthesis. Double immunofluorescence of human breast cancer tissues showed α-SMA- and/or calponin-positive myofibroblasts in the TNC-deposited stroma. Among several receptors for TNC, the protein levels of the αv and β1 integrin subunits were significantly increased after the treatment. Immunofluorescence showed the augmented co-localization of αv and β1 at focal adhesions. Immunoprecipitation using an anti-αv antibody revealed a significant increase in co-precipitated β1 with TNC in lysates. The knockdown of αv and β1 suppressed the up-regulation of α-SMA and calponin. The addition of TNC induced the phosphorylation of SMAD2/3, while SB-505124 and SIS3 blocked myofibroblast differentiation. Therefore, TNC enhances its own synthesis by forming a positive feedback loop and increases integrin αvβ1 heterodimer levels to activate TGF-β signaling, which is followed by a change to highly contractile myofibroblasts. TNC may essentially contribute to the stiffer stromal formation characteristic of breast cancer tissues.
Daisuke Katoh, Yuji Kozuka, Aya Noro, Tomoko Ogawa, Kyoko Imanaka-Yoshida, Toshimichi Yoshida
2852 related Products with: Tenascin-C induces phenotypic changes in fibroblasts to myofibroblasts with high contractility through the integrin αvβ1/TGF-β/SMAD signaling axis in human breast cancer.4 Arrays/Slide4 Membranes/Box100 ul2 Pieces/Box
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