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Molecular heterogeneity in breast carcinoma cells with increased invasive capacities.

Background Metastatic progression of breast cancer is still a challenge in clinical oncology. Therefore, an elucidation how carcinoma cells belonging to different breast cancer subtypes realize their metastatic capacities is needed. The aim of this study was to elucidate a similarity of activated molecular pathways underlying an enhancement of invasiveness of carcinoma cells belonging to different breast carcinoma subtypes. Materials and methods In order to reach this aim, parental and invasive (INV) MDA-MB-231 (triple-negative), T47D (hormone receptor-positive), and Au565 (Her2-positive) breast carcinoma cells were used and their molecular phenotypes were compared using a proteomic approach. Results Independently from breast cancer subtypes, INV cells have demonstrated fibroblast-like morphology accompanied by enhancement of invasive and migratory capacities, increased expression of cancer stem cell markers, and delayed tumor growth in in vivo animal models. However, the global proteomic analysis has highlighted that INV cells were different in protein expressions from the parental cells, and Her2-positive Au565-INV cells showed the most pronounced molecular differences compared to the triple-negative MDA-MB-231-INV and hormone receptor-positive T47D-INV cells. Although Au565-INV breast carcinoma cells possessed the highest number of deregulated proteins, they had the lowest overlapping in proteins commonly expressed in MDA-MB-231-INV and T47D-INV cells. Conclusions We can conclude that hormone receptor-positive cells with increased invasiveness acquire the molecular characteristics of triple-negative breast cancer cells, whereas Her2-positive INV cells specifically changed their own molecular phenotype with very limited partaking in the involved pathways found in the MDA-MB-231-INV and T47D-INV cells. Since hormone receptor-positive invasive cells share their molecular properties with triple-negative breast cancer cells, we assume that these types of metastatic disease can be treated rather equally with an option to add anti-hormonal agents. In contrast, Her2-positive metastasis should be carefully evaluated for more effective therapeutic approaches which are distinct from the triple-negative and hormone-positive metastatic breast cancers.

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Breast invasive ductal ca Breast invasive ductal ca Breast invasive ductal ca Breast invasive ductal ca Breast invasive lobular c Breast invasive ductal ca Breast invasive ductal ca Breast invasive ductal ca Breast invasive ductal ca Breast fibroadenoma tissu Human breast invasive duc Breast invasive ductal ca

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Clinico-pathological features, treatments and survival of malignant insulinomas: a multicenter study.

management of malignant insulinomas is challenging due to the need to control both hypoglycaemic syndrome and tumor growth. Literature data is limited to small series.

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Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features: a problematic entity.

Noninvasive follicular thyroid neoplasm with papillary-like nuclear features (NIFTP) is a borderline thyroid tumour formerly known as noninvasive encapsulated follicular variant of papillary thyroid carcinoma. The prevalence of NIFTP is estimated at 4.4-9.1% of all papillary thyroid carcinomas worldwide; however, the rate of occurrence of NIFTP is eight times lower in Asian countries than in Western Europe and America. At the molecular level, NIFTP is characterised by the lack of BRAF V600E and BRAF V600E-like mutations or other high-risk mutations (TERT, TP53), and a high rate of RAS mutations, which is similar to other follicular-pattern thyroid tumours. The diagnosis of NIFTP can only be made after histological examination of the entire tumour removed during surgery, and is based on strictly defined inclusion and exclusion criteria. Although the diagnosis is postoperative, the combination of certain findings of preoperative tests including ultrasonography, cytology, and molecular testing may raise suspicion of NIFTP. These tumours can be effectively treated by lobectomy, although total thyroidectomy remains an option for some patients. Radioactive iodine and thyroid stimulating hormone suppression therapy are not required. NIFTP has an extremely good prognosis, even when treated conservatively with lobectomy alone. Nevertheless, it cannot be considered as a benign lesion. The risk of adverse outcomes, including lymph node and distant metastases, is low but not negligible.

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Malignant struma ovarii with a robust response to radioactive iodine.

Struma ovarii is a rare, usually benign ovarian tumour with malignancy occurring in <5% of cases. Metastases, particularly seeding to bone, are extremely rare. Presentation is variable but often features local pain and/or ascites and hyperthyroidism may occur. It is not established how to best treat and follow patients with extensive disease. Case reports of radioiodine (I131) ablative therapy following thyroidectomy have shown reduced recurrence. We describe the case of a 33-year-old woman who presented with bone pain and was diagnosed with skeletal metastases with features of follicular thyroid carcinoma. However, thyroid pathology was benign. She recalled that 5 years prior, an ovarian teratoma was excised, classified at that time as a dermoid cyst. Retrospective review of this pathology confirmed struma ovarii without obvious malignant features. The patient was found to have widespread metastases to bone and viscera and her thyroglobulin was >3000 µg/L following recombinant TSH administration prior to her first dose of I131. At 25 months following radioiodine treatment, she is in remission with an undetectable thyroglobulin and clear I131 surveillance scans. This case demonstrates an unusual presentation of malignant struma ovarii together with challenges of predicting metastatic disease, and demonstrates a successful radioiodine regimen inducing remission.

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Rabbit Anti-Human TopBP1 Goat Anti-Diphtheria Toxi Toxoplasma gondii SAG1 an Marker Gene™ Non-Radioa L-Alanine Benzyl Ester p- Analysis Tool for AAH-APO Malignant melanoma and no Analysis Tool for AAH-CYT Rabbit Anti-Human TOSO (C Goat Anti-Diphtheria Toxi Human Mouse Phospho-p38 a Low density malignant mel

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Cytotoxic and apoptotic effects of ethanolic propolis extract on C6 glioma cells.

Propolis is a natural resinous substance obtained from beehives, and emerging evidence supports that it has antitumor, antiinflammatory, antioxidant, and antimicrobial activities. The aim of the study is to examine the cytotoxic, antioxidant, and apoptotic features of ethanolic propolis extract (PE) on C6 glioma cells. The cells were treated with ethanolic PE at various concentrations for 24 hours, after which the total antioxidant status (TAS) and total oxidant status; malondialdehyde, protein carbonyl, 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine, and glutathione (GSH) levels; Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase (Cu/Zn-SOD) activity; and apoptotic markers were measured. Ethanolic PE at 100, 250, and 500 μg/mL concentrations showed optimal activity on C6 glioma cells. TAS and GSH levels were significantly increased in C6 glioma cells treated with 100 and 500 μg/mL PE compared to control cells (P < .05). Similarly, the activity of Cu/Zn-SOD was higher in C6 glioma cells treated with 250 or 500 μg/mL ethanolic PE compared to control cells (P < .05), as was the caspase-3 mRNA expression level. The highest levels of caspase-8 and -9 expression were in C6 glioma cells treated with 500 μg/mL PE. Collectively, our results indicate that ethanolic PE has cytotoxic and apoptotic effects on C6 glioma cells. Furthermore, it may provide a protective role in the antioxidant defense system. PE shows potential for development as a natural antioxidant and apoptotic agent for the treatment of brain tumors.

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