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Effect of lotus seed resistant starch on tolerance of mice fecal microbiota to bile salt.

We investigated the effect of lotus seed resistant starch (LRS) on mice fecal microbiota tolerance to bile salt by culturing organisms compared to inulin (INU) glucose (GLU) and waxy corn starch (WAX). Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and diversity indices in LRS and INU groups were increased in the presence of 0.03% to 0.3% bile salt, while they were decreased in GLU, and OTUs were decreased in WAX. Specifically, LRS promoted proliferation of Lactobacillus, which potentially used bile acid, and inhibited growth of the potentially harmful bacteria Enterococcus and Staphylococcus. Moreover, Lactobacillus was negatively correlated with Salinicoccus and Granulicatella in GLU, LRS and INU groups at 1.5% bile salt. With LRS, amino acid metabolic pathways were increased while pathogens causing certain diseases were decreased. LRS increased the tolerance of mice fecal microbiota to bile salt by promoting the proliferation of bacteria utilizing bile acid and inhibiting the growth of harmful bacteria.

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Expanded Graphite/Paraffin/Silicone Rubber as High Temperature Form-stabilized Phase Change Materials for Thermal Energy Storage and Thermal Interface Materials.

In this work, expanded graphite/paraffin/silicone rubber composite phase-change materials (PCMs) were prepared by blending the expanded graphite (EG), paraffin wax (PW) and silicone rubber (SR) matrix. It has been shown that PW fully penetrates into the three dimensional (3D) pores of EG to form the EG/PW particles, which are sealed by SR and evenly embedded in the SR matrix. As a result of the excellent thermal stability of SR and the capillary force from the 3D pores of EG, the EG/PW/SR PCMs are found to have good shape stability and high reliability. After being baked in an oven at 150 °C for 24 h, the shape of the EG/PW/SR PCMs is virtually unchanged, and their weight loss and latent heat drop are only 7.91 wt % and 11.3 J/g, respectively. The latent heat of the EG/PW/SR composites can reach up to 43.6 and 41.8 J/g for the melting and crystallizing processes, respectively. The super cooling of PW decreased from 4.2 to 2.4 due to the heterogeneous nucleation on the large surface of EG and the sealing effect of the SR. Meanwhile, the thermal conductivity of the EG/PW/SR PCMs reaches 0.56 W·m·K, which is about 2.8 times and 3.73 times of pure PW and pristine SR, respectively. The novel EG/PW/SR PCMs with superior shape and thermal stabilities will have a potential application in heat energy storage and thermal interface materials (TIM) for electronic devices.

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The zinc finger transcription factors Bbctf1α and Bbctf1β regulate the expression of genes involved in lipid degradation and contribute to stress tolerance and virulence in a fungal insect pathogen.

To initiate insect infection, entomopathogenic fungi produce diverse cuticle-degrading enzymes. Of those, lipolytic enzymes participate in epicuticular lipid hydrolysis and thus facilitating fungal penetration through the outermost cuticular barrier of the insect host. The Far/CTF1-type zinc finger transcription factors play an important role in the regulation of lipolytic activity and fungal pathogenicity in plant pathogens but remain functionally unknown in fungal insect pathogens.

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Effect of Calanus Oil Supplementation and 16 Week Exercise Program on Selected Fitness Parameters in Older Women.

We investigated changes in functional fitness after an exercise program in combination with Calanus oil supplementation, a novel source of bioactive lipids rich in wax esters with omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3 PUFA). Fifty-five healthy sedentary women aged 65-80 (mean age 70.9 ± 3.9 years, BMI 27.24 ± 3.9 kg m, VOpeak 19.46 ± 3.7 ml kg min) were enrolled in the study. The participants were divided into two groups: exercise training plus Calanus Oil supplementation ( = 28) or exercise plus placebo (sunflower oil) supplementation ( = 27). The exercise intervention program was completed by 53 participants and contained functional circuit training (twice a week, 45 min plus 15 min of stretching and balance training) and Nordic walking (once a week, 60 min) for 16 weeks. Senior fitness test, exercise stress test on bicycle ergometer, hand-grip, and body composition were evaluated before and after the program. Our results show that functional fitness and body composition improved following the interventional exercise program, but for most of the parameters there was no synergic effect of supplementing n-3 PUFA-rich Calanus oil. In comparison to the placebo group, the group with Calanus supplementation experienced significantly higher improvement of functional strength of lower body which was evaluated by the chair stand test. Supplementation with Calanus may have a synergic effect with exercise on functional strength of the lower body in the elderly.

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In Response to Incidence of Inadequate Perforators and Salvage Options for the Anterior Lateral Thigh Free Flap.


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Research and development of a silicone letrozole-releasing device to control reproduction in cattle.

Two experiments were conducted to test the effectiveness of a silicone matrix as an intravaginal drug delivery device for letrozole, an aromatase inhibitor used for synchronization protocols in cattle. A wax dip-coat formulation of the intravaginal device used in previous studies was effective in releasing letrozole but was cumbersome to manufacture and deploy, resulting in unwanted variation in drug delivery and circulating concentrations of letrozole. In Experiment 1, a 3 × 3 design was used to test the release kinetics of letrozole from silicone in vitro. Silicone was mixed with 3 different letrozole drug loads (5%, 10%, 15%) and 3 different mineral oil loads (5%, 10%, 15%), and letrozole release into 62.5% ethanol was compared with the wax dip-coat formulation (positive control) by UV spectrophotometry. Letrozole was released from silicone in a dose-dependent manner, with no effect of mineral oil. Release kinetics were then examined in vivo (Experiment 2) in nulliparous beef heifers assigned randomly to six groups (n = 6/group) and given either a large surface area (LSA) with 5% or 15% drug load, a standard surface area (SSA) intravaginal silicone device impregnated with 10% or 15% drug load, a wax dip-coat device (positive control), or a blank device (negative control). Devices were inserted on Day 3 (Day 0 = ovulation) until Day 11. Blood samples were collected at 0, 30 min, 1, 2, 3, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, and 24 h, and twice daily until Day 11 to determine letrozole plasma concentrations by LC-MS/MS and estradiol plasma concentrations by radioimmunoassay The ovaries were examined once daily from Day 3-13 by ultrasonography to determine follicular and luteal responses to treatment. Letrozole plasma concentrations were higher in heifers given a device with an LSA vs SSA (P < 0.05). Plasma concentrations of estradiol decreased the most in heifers given the 15% LSA device (P = 0.06). The interval between emergence of successive follicular waves was longest (P < 0.05) in the positive control and the 15% LSA groups. As well, the diameter profiles of the dominant follicle and the corpus luteum were largest (P < 0.01) in the positive control and 15% LSA groups. In conclusion, letrozole was released from a silicone matrix in vitro in a dose-dependent manner, and the 15% LSA devices achieved target effects on ovarian function. Results may be used to manufacture a silicone intravaginal device for delivering aromatase inhibitors in a novel synchronization protocol for cattle.

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Development of thin-film solid-phase microextraction coating and method for determination of artificial sweeteners in surface waters.

A semi-automated and sensitive method was developed for simultaneous determination of the six most consumed artificial sweeteners (AS) in surface waters using thin-film solid-phase microextraction (TF-SPME) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). A triple quadrupole mass spectrometer and an electrospray ionization source (ESI-MS) run in negative ionization and multiple reaction monitoring modes were employed for instrumental analysis. The TF-SPME method was optimized for the extraction phase, sample pH, desorption solvent, extraction time, and desorption time. In-house-synthetized-hydrophilic-lipophilic balance weak anion exchange (HLB-WAX) particles imbedded within a polyacrylonitrile (PAN) binder were selected as the extraction phase for the thin-film coating due to their cost-effectiveness and enhanced sensitivity for artificial sweeteners. Suitable analytical parameters that include linearity (R > 0.9914), recovery > 80%, inter, and intra-reproducibility less than 18% were obtained for the AS compounds studied. The developed method estimated limits of detection (LODs) ranging from 0.004 to 0.038 ng mL The SPME method was successfully applied for the determination of ultra-trace levels of AS in water samples collected from Grand River (Ontario, Canada), downstream of three municipal wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs). Concentrations ranging from 0.03 to 20.3 ng mL were found for the AS compounds studied.

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