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Altered expression of fucosylation pathway genes is associated with poor prognosis and tumor metastasis in non‑small cell lung cancer.

Fucosylation is a post‑translational modification that attaches fucose residues to protein‑ or lipid‑bound oligosaccharides. Certain fucosylation pathway genes are aberrantly expressed in several types of cancer, including non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC), and this aberrant expression is associated with poor prognosis in patients with cancer. However, the molecular mechanism by which these fucosylation pathway genes promote tumor progression has not been well‑characterized. The present study analyzed public microarray data obtained from NSCLC samples. Multivariate analysis revealed that altered expression of fucosylation pathway genes, including fucosyltransferase 1 (FUT1), FUT2, FUT3, FUT6, FUT8 and GDP‑L‑fucose synthase (TSTA3), correlated with poor survival in patients with NSCLC. Inhibition of FUTs by 2F‑peracetyl‑fucose (2F‑PAF) suppressed transforming growth factor β (TGFβ)‑mediated Smad3 phosphorylation and nuclear translocation in NSCLC cells. In addition, wound‑healing and Transwell migration assays demonstrated that 2F‑PAF inhibited TGFβ‑induced NSCLC cell migration and invasion. Furthermore, in vivo bioluminescence imaging analysis revealed that 2F‑PAF attenuated the metastatic capacity of NSCLC cells. These results may help characterize the oncogenic role of fucosylation in NSCLC biology and highlight its potential for developing cancer therapeutics.

1388 related Products with: Altered expression of fucosylation pathway genes is associated with poor prognosis and tumor metastasis in non‑small cell lung cancer.

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The role of myoglobin in epithelial cancers: Insights from transcriptomics.

The muscle‑associated respiratory protein myoglobin (MB) is expressed in multiple types of cancer, including breast and prostate tumors. In Kaplan‑Meier analyses of the two tumor types, MB positivity is associated with favorable prognoses. Despite its well‑characterized function in myocytes, the role of MB in cancer remains unclear. To study the impact of endogenous MB expression, small interfering RNA MB‑knockdown cells were engineered using breast, prostate and colon cancer cell lines (MDA‑MB468, LNCaP, DLD‑1), and their transcriptomes were investigated using RNA‑Seq at different oxygen levels. In MB‑positive cells, increased expression of glycolytic genes was observed, which was possibly mediated by a higher activity of hypoxia‑inducible factor 1α. In addition, the results of the gene set enrichment analysis suggested that MB contributed to fatty acid transport and turnover. MB‑positive, wild‑type‑p53 LNCaP cells also exhibited increased expression of p53 target genes involved in cell cycle checkpoint control and prevention of cell migration. MB‑positive cells expressing mutant p53 exhibited upregulation of genes associated with prolonged cancer cell viability and motility. Therefore, it was hypothesized that these transcriptomic differences may result from MB‑mediated generation of nitric oxide or reactive oxygen species, thus employing established enzymatic activities of the globin. In summary, the transcriptome comparisons identified potential molecular functions of MB in carcinogenesis by highlighting the interaction of MB with key metabolic and regulatory processes.

2003 related Products with: The role of myoglobin in epithelial cancers: Insights from transcriptomics.

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miR‑501‑3p promotes colorectal cancer progression via activation of Wnt/β‑catenin signaling.

Aberrant activation of Wnt/β‑catenin signaling is observed in >90% of colorectal cancer cases. microRNAs (miRNAs) regulate the expression of key genes in Wnt/β‑catenin signaling. As a result, abnormal expression of miRNAs regulates the activation of Wnt/β‑catenin signaling in several types of cancer. In the current study, it was demonstrated that miR‑501‑3p was overexpressed in colorectal tumor tissues compared to the adjacent normal tissues. Downregulation of miR‑501‑3p inhibited cell proliferation and sphere formation, while it induced cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase in colorectal cancer cells. Bioinformatics analysis results predicted that adenomatous polyposis coli (APC), a negative regulator of Wnt/β‑catenin signaling, was a potential target gene of miR‑501‑3p. Inhibition of miR‑501‑3p increased APC expression in colorectal cancer cells. Additionally, β‑catenin was destabilized following miR‑501‑3p inhibition; immunofluorescence analysis revealed that β‑catenin translocated from nucleus to cytoplasm. In addition, cyclin D1 and c‑Myc, two well‑characterized target genes of Wnt/β‑catenin signaling, were downregulated following miR‑501‑3p inhibition. Transfection of APC small interfering RNA re‑activated β‑catenin and stimulated the expression of cyclin D1 and c‑Myc. Furthermore, silencing of APC reversed the miR‑501‑3p inhibitor‑induced cell cycle disruption, and the inhibition of cell proliferation and sphere formation in colorectal cancer cells. In conclusion, the present study identified miR‑501‑3p as a novel regulator of Wnt/β‑catenin signaling in colorectal cancer cells via targeting APC, suggesting that miR‑501‑3p may act as a novel oncogenic miRNA in colorectal cancer.

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Induction of cardiomyocyte‑like cells from hair follicle cells in mice.

Hair follicles (HFs) are a well‑characterized niche for adult stem cells (SCs), and include epithelial and melanocytic SCs. HF cells are an accessible source of multipotent adult SCs for the generation of the interfollicular epidermis, HF structures and sebaceous glands in addition to the reconstitution of novel HFs in vivo. In the present study, it was demonstrated that HF cells are able to be induced to differentiate into cardiomyocyte‑like cells in vitro under specific conditions. It was determined that HF cells cultured on OP9 feeder cells in KnockOut‑Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium/B27 in the presence of vascular endothelial growth factors differentiated into cardiomyocyte‑like cells that express markers specific to cardiac lineage, but do not express non‑cardiac lineage markers including neural stem/progenitor cell, HF bulge cells or undifferentiated spermatogonia markers. These cardiomyocyte‑like cells exhibited a spindle‑ and filament‑shaped morphology similar to that presented by cardiac muscles and exhibited spontaneous beating that persisted for over 3 months. These results demonstrate that SC reprogramming and differentiation may be induced without resulting in any genetic modification, which is important for the clinical applications of SCs including tissue and organ regeneration.

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Recent Trends in Oral Anticoagulant Use and Post-Discharge Complications Among Atrial Fibrillation Patients with Acute Myocardial Infarction.

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a common complication of acute myocardial infarction (AMI).The CHA2DS2VAScand CHADS2risk scoresare used to identifypatients with AF at risk for strokeand to guide oral anticoagulants (OAC) use, including patients with AMI. However, the epidemiology of AF, further stratifiedaccording to patients' risk of stroke, has not been wellcharacterized among those hospitalized for AMI.

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Psychological Functioning in Patients With Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease: A Preliminary Study of Relations With Smoking Status and Disease Impact.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is a tobacco-related disease associated with several comorbid conditions, including elevated rates of depression and anxiety. Psychological factors that commonly underlie nicotine dependence, depression, and anxiety may represent novel treatment targets, but have not yet been examined among patientswith COPD. We assessed three psychological factors-anxiety sensitivity (AS; fear of anxiety-related sensations), distress intolerance (DI; inability to withstand distressing states), and anhedonia (Anh; diminished sense of pleasure or interest)-in relation to smoking status, COPD symptom impact, and negative response to COPD symptoms.

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Hypoxia induces endothelial‑mesenchymal transition in pulmonary vascular remodeling.

It is well established that hypoxia induces epithelial‑mesenchymal transition in vitro and in vivo. However, the role of hypoxia in endothelial‑mesenchymal transition (EndMT), an important process in the pathogenesis of pulmonary hypertension, is not well‑characterized. The present study demonstrated a significant downregulation of the endothelial marker CD31 and its co‑localization with a mesenchymal marker, α‑smooth muscle actin (α‑SMA), in the intimal layer of small pulmonary arteries of rats exposed to chronic hypoxia. These results suggest a possible role of hypoxia in inducing EndMT in vivo. Consistent with these observations, pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells (PMVECs) cultured under hypoxic conditions exhibited a significant decrease in CD31 expression, alongside a marked increase in the expression of α‑SMA and two other mesenchymal markers, collagen (Col) 1A1 and Col3A1. In addition, hypoxia promoted the proliferation and migration of α‑SMA‑expressing mesenchymal‑like cells, but not of PMVECs. Of note, knockdown of hypoxia‑inducible factor 1α (HIF‑1α) effectively inhibited hypoxic induction of α‑SMA, Col1A1 and the transcription factor Twist1, while rescuing hypoxic suppression of CD31; these results suggest that HIF‑1α is essential for hypoxia‑induced EndMT and that it serves as an upstream regulator of Twist1. Mechanistically, HIF‑1α was identified to bind to the promoter of the Twist1 gene, thus activating Twist1 transcription and regulating EndMT. Collectively, the present results indicate that the HIF‑1α/Twist1 pathway has a critical role in mediating the effect of hypoxia‑induced EndMT in pulmonary arterial remodeling.

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Genetically‑modified stem cells in treatment of human diseases: Tissue kallikrein (KLK1)‑based targeted therapy (Review).

The tissue kallikrein‑kinin system (KKS) is an endogenous multiprotein metabolic cascade which is implicated in the homeostasis of the cardiovascular, renal and central nervous system. Human tissue kallikrein (KLK1) is a serine protease, component of the KKS that has been demonstrated to exert pleiotropic beneficial effects in protection from tissue injury through its anti‑inflammatory, anti‑apoptotic, anti‑fibrotic and anti‑oxidative actions. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) or endothelial progenitor cells (EPCs) constitute populations of well‑characterized, readily obtainable multipotent cells with special immunomodulatory, migratory and paracrine properties rendering them appealing potential therapeutics in experimental animal models of various diseases. Genetic modification enhances their inherent properties. MSCs or EPCs are competent cellular vehicles for drug and/or gene delivery in the targeted treatment of diseases. KLK1 gene delivery using adenoviral vectors or KLK1 protein infusion into injured tissues of animal models has provided particularly encouraging results in attenuating or reversing myocardial, renal and cerebrovascular ischemic phenotype and tissue damage, thus paving the way for the administration of genetically modified MSCs or EPCs with the human tissue KLK1 gene. Engraftment of KLK1‑modified MSCs and/or KLK1‑modified EPCs resulted in advanced beneficial outcome regarding heart and kidney protection and recovery from ischemic insults. Collectively, findings from pre‑clinical studies raise the possibility that tissue KLK1 may be a novel future therapeutic target in the treatment of a wide range of cardiovascular, cerebrovascular and renal disorders.

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Comparative analysis of human embryonic stem cell‑derived neural stem cells as an in vitro human model.

Alternative cell models of human neural stem cells (hNSCs) have been developed and used for investigations ranging from in vitro experiments to in vivo clinical studies. However, a cell model capable of mimicking the 'normal' state of hNSCs is mandatory in order to extrapolate the results of these studies to humans. In the present study, to select a more suitable hNSC model for developing human‑based experimental platforms, two representative hNSC types were compared, namely human embryonic stem cell (hESC)‑derived hNSCs and ReNcell CX cells, which are well‑characterized immortalized hNSC lines. The hNSCs, differentiated from hESCs via human neuroectodermal sphere (hNES) formation, recapitulated the molecular and cellular phenotypes of hNSCs, including NSC marker expression and terminal neuronal differentiation potential. Comparative analyses of the transcriptome profiles of the hESC‑derived hNESs and ReNcell CX hNSCs showed that the differentiated hNESs were analogous to the ReNcell CX cells, as demonstrated by principal component analysis and hierarchical sample clustering. The hNSC‑specific transcriptome was presented, comprising commonly expressed transcripts between hNESs derived from hESCs and ReNcell CX cells. To elucidate the molecular mechanisms associated with the hNSC identity, the hNSC‑specific transcriptome was analyzed using pathway and functional annotation clustering analyses. The results suggested that hESC‑derived hNESs, an expandable and accessible cell source, may be used as a relevant hNSC model in a wide range of neurological investigations.

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Age‑related differences in serum MFG‑E8, TGF‑β1 and correlation to the severity of atherosclerosis determined by ultrasound.

Atherosclerosis (AS) is an age‑related inflammatory disease. Globule‑epidermal growth factor‑8 (MFG‑E8) and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF‑β1) are involved in the pathogenesis of AS. However, age‑related changes in circulating levels of MFG‑E8 and TGF‑β1, and their correlation with the severity of AS is not well‑characterized. In this study, we investigated age‑related changes in serum levels of MFG‑E8, TGF‑β1 and examined their association with the severity of AS. Sixty healthy volunteers were divided into young, middle‑age and old‑age groups. In addition, carotid ultrasound examination was performed to assess the intima‑media thickness (IMT) of carotid artery. Sixty‑seven patients with carotid AS and 30 age‑matched healthy persons were divided into IMT increased group, plaque group and control group. Serum levels of MFG‑E8, TGF‑β1, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF‑α) and intercellular adhesion molecule‑1 were measured in all subjects. A positive association between serum MFG‑E8 levels and age was observed in healthy volunteers, while a significant negative association was observed between TGF‑β1 levels and age. Serum levels of MFG‑E8 and TNF‑α showed a positive correlation while those of TGF‑β1 showed a negative correlation with Crouse scores for carotid artery IMT (P<0.05 for both). Both MFG‑E8 and TGF‑β1 were age‑related inflammatory factors. MFG‑E8 showed a positive correlation, while TGF‑β1 showed a negative correlation with the severity of AS. Our findings suggest that both MFG‑E8 and TGF‑β1 are age‑related inflammatory factors and are related to the degree of AS. In conclusion, both MFG‑E8 and TGF‑β1 may serve as potential markers of the severity of AS.

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